社会组织report代写 经济essay代写 金融代写 英国论文代写

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社会组织report代写 Terrorist organizations cannot survive without some form of financial support. According to Kushner (42), this funding..



Non-profit Organizations and Financing of Terrorism社会组织report代写


Terrorist organizations cannot survive without some form of financial support. According to Kushner (42), this funding could be needed for activities ranging from the proselytization of the food . And lodging sector to the purchase of materials for specialized operations. The financing sources differ according to the political situation and the objectives of the organization.

Kushner also recognizes the link between some charity NPOs and funding of terrorism. Particularly, he suggests that NPOs remain vulnerable to misuse by terrorists or terrorist networks because both NPOs and terrorist groups aim to promote their cause with the same resources. This paper builds Krushner's idea and examines why NPOs' financial support for terrorism complicates the fight against terrorism.

Countering Terror Financing社会组织report代写


Kushner explains how the connections between money laundering and terrorism funding have been uncovered in recent years. Money laundering means the illicit proceeds from crime are being concealed. Terrorism funding means collecting or supplying terrorist money. Regarding money laundering, the funds are often of criminal origin,

while the funds may come from legitimate and illegal sources in terrorist funding. Consequently, the main objective of terrorist funders is typically . Not to disguise the sources of funds but to hide the financial activities and financial platforms. Terrorist organizations may be located in another geographical area, making identification impossible,

thus can generate revenue from legal enterprises. Small groups with a comparatively small amount of funding .  And minimal participation in the financial sector may also carry out terrorist attacks. Such small sums are mostly regarded as minimally risky but are vulnerable to terrorist funding and money laundering.

According to Kushner 社会组织report代写


drug trafficking is a criminal enterprise that offers the largest terrorist financing by far. However, additional operations .  Provide major financing outlets, including hijacking, kidnapping for ransom claims, precious stone theft, human procurement, and human trafficking. Arms trafficking, which is both a source and the utilization of those materials and often combined with other forms of trafficking in a trade medium,

is a different case. Further, the author notes that During the Cold War, when international tensions were often seen as battlegrounds for the two blocs, with each terrorist cause an excuse to weaken or balkanize the other bloc, government-provided funding was the primary source of revenue for terrorist groups. This funding source was destroyed at the end of the cold war.

While certain isolated states offer arms, training camps, and funding to some militant organizations, Kushner says the key terrorist organizations have had to seek assistance elsewhere.

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Kushner also states that while a long-standing tradition社会组织report代写


collecting funds from the diaspora has been a major funding source. Undoubtedly, charitable organizations play a significant role in this funding style, which is why they are being targeted specifically in existing policies. However, charitable organizations could mix legal profits from individuals and private companies (voluntary or otherwise) and governments with profits from illegal activity,

all in the guise of charity. After all, it's inappropriate and impossible to separate illegal cash from clean money.As a result, according to Kushner, the aim of counterterrorism should be to tighten the atmosphere in which terrorists work, making it more difficult for them to carry out their schemes of death and destruction.

It entails not only targeting operating cells but also their strategic and financial support networks. From the surface, Kushner's suggestions seem easy, but this is not the case. Governments and other organizations joined in the fight against terrorism face numerous obstacles that slow down eradicating terrorism.    社会组织report代写

Challenges to Countering Terror Financing社会组织report代写


The rampant perpetration of terrorist acts worldwide, even in first-world nations, implies that terrorist organizations have strong foundations and potentially huge financial capacity. In other words, it is almost impossible to stop the flow of finances into terrorist coffers. As Kushner suggests, governments can only restrict the environment where terrorists operate. Ideally,

Among the main strategies that can be explored include making it more .  Challenging for terrorists to collect, launder, and transfer funds and subsequently hinder their ability to carry out attacks. Overall, among jihadists' different methods to collect, launder, and move money, charities and other NGOs stick out for several reasons.

First, the deceit involved in charity corruption, in which funds donated to make.  The planet a safer place is only used to finance death and devastation, is a heinous betrayal of people's faith. And a misunderstanding of the Islamic charitable promise of zakat. Second, because of the charitable aspect of each of these charities and service organizations,社会组织report代写

their offices and staff can be seen on the ground in war.  Zones with special concern to militant groups without triggering doubt. Third, charities are perfect platforms for collecting large sums of money and laundering and distributing those and other assets.

Fourthly, charities act as the ideal cover for extremist agents.社会组织report代写


They recruit and send funds to recipient aid agencies that provide easy . And highly safe means of money laundering and protecting end-users from the investigation. For instance, funds collected by Hamas and wire-transfers overseas can be traced to.  A particular charity run by Hamas in the West Bank or Gaza. Still,

capital payments distributed by the Hamas courier are difficult to track without incredibly robust intelligence-usually from the more unusual human (human intelligence) type Kushner (44).

About the simplicity and benefits of using charities as fronts for extremist organizations, policymakers worldwide have made significant steps in constraining the climate in which terrorist groups use charities to collect, launder and move money.

Though much remains to be done-particularly concerning (a) non-cooperative states .  And (b) non-Al-Qaeda groups such as Hamas-widely enhanced international cooperation has enhanced . Understanding of the importance that terrorist groups are raising funds through charities and has contributed to concrete attempts to curb . The flow of funds to terrorists under the umbrella of charitable donations.

In terms of considerable success in the war on terror and the fight against terror funding, terrorists remain adapted .  To the evolving world of anti-terrorism and thus create fresh, evolutionary strategies. Further successes in counterterrorism would depend on enhanced international cooperation, information sharing,社会组织report代写

the implementation of local anti-terrorism and anti-money laundering laws, and the focus on targeting those who perpetrate actual terrorist acts and those who facilitate such activities by offering the required logistical and financial means.

Although the volume of globally frozen terrorist funding is small, whether the correct accounts, businesses, or frontal organizations .  Are cut off, the effect may be substantial of freezing terrorist money. Denying terrorist access to their favorite ways of collecting, laundering, and moving funds complicate their work.

Conclusion


In summary, by examining the relationship between non-profit organizations .  And terrorist organizations, Kushner enables us to understand why jihadists can still operate with efficiency despite existing strong anti-terrorist efforts.

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Works Cited


Kushner, Harvey W. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. London [etc.: Sage Publications, 2003. Print.

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非营利组织与恐怖主义融资
没有某种形式的财政支持,恐怖主义组织就无法生存。根据库什纳(42)的说法,从食品和住宿部门的宗教化到购买专门业务所需的材料等活动可能需要这笔资金。资金来源因政治局势和组织目标而异。库什纳还认识到一些慈善机构非营利组织与资助恐怖主义之间的联系。特别是,他建议非营利组织仍然容易受到恐怖分子或恐怖网络的滥用,因为非营利组织和恐怖组织都致力于以相同的资源促进其事业。本文建立了Krushner的想法,并研究了非营利组织为恐怖主义提供的财政支持为何使反恐斗争变得更加复杂。
反恐融资
库什纳解释说,近年来如何发现洗钱与恐怖主义资金之间的联系。洗钱意味着犯罪活动的非法收益被掩盖。资助恐怖主义是指收集或提供恐怖分子的钱。关于洗钱,资金通常是犯罪来源,而资金可能来自恐怖分子资助的合法和非法来源。因此,恐怖分子资助者的主要目标通常不是伪装资金来源,而是隐藏金融活动和金融平台。恐怖组织可能位于另一个地理区域,无法进行识别,因此可以从合法企业获得收入。资金相对较少且很少参与金融部门的小团体也可能会发动恐怖袭击。这么少的钱通常被认为是风险最小的,但容易受到恐怖分子的资助和洗钱。
根据库什纳的说法,贩运毒品是犯罪活动,提供了迄今为止最大的恐怖分子资助。但是,额外的业务提供了主要的融资渠道,包括劫持,绑架勒索赎金,宝石盗窃,人类采购和人口贩运。武器贩运是另一种情况,武器贩运既是这些材料的来源,又是这些材料的利用,并常常与其他形式的贩运结合在一起。此外,作者指出,在冷战时期,国际紧张局势经常被视为两个集团的战场,而每个恐怖分子都是削弱或平衡另一个集团的借口,政府提供的资金是恐怖分子收入的主要来源组。冷战结束时,这种资金来源被摧毁了。库什纳说,虽然某些孤立的州向一些好战组织提供武器,训练营和资金,但主要的恐怖组织不得不寻求其他地方的援助。
库什纳还指出,尽管历史悠久,但从侨民那里筹集资金一直是主要的资金来源。毫无疑问,慈善组织在这种筹资方式中发挥着重要作用,这就是为什么在现有政策中将慈善组织作为特定目标。但是,慈善组织可以以慈善为名,将来自个人和私人公司(自愿或其他)和政府的合法利润与来自非法活动的利润混合在一起。毕竟,将非法现金与清洁资金分开是不适当的,也是不可能的。
结果,库什纳认为,反恐的目的应该是加强恐怖分子的工作气氛,使他们更难以执行其谋杀和销毁计划。它不仅需要针对运营单元,还需要针对其战略和财务支持网络。从表面上看,库什纳的建议似乎很简单,但事实并非如此。参加反恐斗争的政府和其他组织面临着阻碍消灭恐怖主义的众多障碍。
反恐融资面临的挑战
全世界,甚至在第一世界国家,恐怖行为的猖implies行径都意味着恐怖组织具有强大的基础和潜在的巨大财务能力。换句话说,几乎不可能阻止资金流入恐怖活动库房。正如库什纳(Kushner)所言,政府只能限制恐怖分子活动的环境。理想情况下,可以探索的主要策略包括使恐怖分子收集,洗钱和转移资金更具挑战性,从而阻碍恐怖分子进行攻击的能力。总体而言,圣战分子出于各种原因而采用各种不同的方法来收集,洗钱和转移金钱,慈善机构和其他非政府组织。
首先,涉及慈善腐败的欺诈行为,即为使地球更安全而捐赠的资金仅用于资助死亡和破坏,是对人民信仰的严重背叛和一种误解。
Míngchēngzakat的伊斯兰慈善承诺中的g。第二,由于这些慈善机构和服务组织各自的慈善性质,可以在战区看到他们的办公室和工作人员,而激进组织特别关注这些组织和工作人员,而不会引起怀疑。第三,慈善机构是收集大量金钱,洗钱和分配这些及其他资产的理想平台。
第四,慈善机构是极端分子的理想掩护。他们募集资金并将其发送给受援机构,这些机构提供了简便,高度安全的洗钱手段,并保护了最终用户免于调查。例如,哈马斯收集的资金和海外电汇可以追溯到西岸或加沙的哈马斯(Hamas)经营的特定慈善机构。但是,如果没有令人难以置信的强大情报能力,通常很难从哈马斯快递公司分配的资本付款中追踪-通常来自更不寻常的人类(人类情报)类型的库什纳(44)。
关于将慈善机构作为极端主义组织的阵营的简单性和好处,全球政策制定者在限制恐怖分子利用慈善机构收集,洗钱和转移金钱的气候方面已采取了重要步骤。尽管仍有许多工作要做,特别是关于(a)非合作国家和(b)非基地组织,例如哈马斯,广泛加强了国际合作,这使人们更加了解恐怖主义集团通过慈善机构筹集资金的重要性,并且为遏制在慈善捐款保护下向恐怖分子提供资金的具体尝试做出了贡献。
就在反恐战争和打击恐怖主义资金方面取得巨大成功而言,恐怖分子仍然适应不断变化的反恐怖主义世界,因此制定了新的,进化的战略。反恐怖主义的进一步成功将取决于加强国际合作,信息共享,实施当地的反恐和反洗钱法律,并侧重于针对那些实施实际恐怖行为的人和通过提供所需后勤服务来促进此类活动的人和财务手段。
尽管全球冻结的恐怖主义资金数额很小,但是无论是切断了正确的账户,企业还是前线组织,冻结冻结资金的作用可能都是巨大的。拒绝恐怖分子使用他们喜欢的收集,清洗和转移资金的方式使他们的工作复杂化。
结论
总而言之,库什纳通过研究非营利组织与恐怖组织之间的关系,使我们了解了为什么圣战分子尽管进行了强有力的反恐努力仍能高效开展工作。

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