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Global Financial Crisis of 2008 and Its Impact on Future Preparedness



金融essay代写 The purpose of this paper was to investigate the global financial crisis of 2008 to understand how it influences future..



Abstract金融essay代写


The purpose of this paper was to investigate the global financial crisis of 2008 to understand how it influences future preparedness. The review of literature covers issues related to the Great Depression and the Great Recession. The intentional movement of capital appeared to be a contributing factor to the two financial crises. The booming stock market led to the Great Depression,

while the housing boom caused the Great Recession. The failure of Congress to respond to the warning by financial leaders was due to the lack of understanding of the hypothetical crisis. There was no evidence to prove the potential of a financial crisis occurring in 2008. Currently,

the trade war fueled by technology and the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic appear to be potential causes of financial crises. In the future, the government of the United States may need to identify effective regulations that control the economic sector and respond to the potential of a financial crisis.

Global Financial Crisis of 2008 and Its Impact on Future Preparedness金融essay代写


Introduction

A financial crisis has the potential to cripple the economy of a nation if there are no mitigation strategies or recovery interventions. The global financial crisis of 2007-2008 had an adverse effect on world economies, and countries took a couple of years before recovering. The lack of appropriate regulation of the financial industry contributed to the occurrence of the financial crisis of 2008,

whereby banks were allowed to partake in hedge fund trading with derivatives. Banks opted to offer mortgages to realize profitable sales on interest-only loans (Temin, 2010). However, the increase in the supply of mortgages led to a decline in housing prices, and homeowners could no longer afford to pay for them.

The United States economic sector plunged into a financial crisis known as the Great Recession.金融essay代写


The United States government had to intervene through appropriate regulation to help the economy recover from the financial crisis.
The great recession of 2008 occurred several decades after the Great Depression of the 1930s. The primary cause of the Great Depression was the stock market crash of 1929.

In the 1920s,the stock prices rose to unexpected levels, eventually contributing to a historic expansion (Temin, 2010).However, the historic expansion reached an inevitable decline near the end of the 1920s, leading to an economic crisis that lasted almost a decade. The economic crisis affected almost every country’s economy, whereby investment dropped, consumer spending deteriorated,金融essay代写

and unemployment increased significantly.The causes of the Great Depression differ from those of the Great Recession, which implies that future financial crises could be caused by other factors like health pandemics. Nations need to learn from the recession to implement effective measures for future preparedness.

金融essay代写

Literature Review金融essay代写


Angle 1: The Great Depression

Economic imbalances caused by central bankers play a significant role in the occurrence of financial crises. The central bankers thought that they could control inflation and deflation through the intentional movement of capital. However, miscalculations have the potential to contribute to economic crises like the Great Depression of the 1930s. In the 1920s,金融essay代写

the stock market was experiencing historical expansions. The rise in stock market prices prompted Wall Street investors to intentionally move their capital to the stock market sector because of the promise of high investment returns (Temin, 2010). However, the stock market prices continued to increase until they reached an inevitable decline in 1929. The stock market crash led to Wall Street investors losing millions of investments,

which eventually led to the economic crisis. The investment in the stock market while neglecting other essential sectors of the economy led to the Great Depression.

Angle 2: The Great Recession金融essay代写


The intentional movement of capital to a specific sector of the economy while neglecting other sectors was also a contributing factor to the financial crisis of 2008. The mortgage sector had promising investment returns for banking institutions beginning in 2004. The United States experienced a housing boom starting from 2004 until 2007.

Banks decided to take advantage of the profitable sector and decided to give homeowners interest-only loans. The banks and other financial institutions intended to earn huge profits from the intentional movement of capital to the mortgage sector. However, the actions of the banking institutions created an economic imbalance (Temin, 2010).

Moreover, the supply of mortgages surpassed the demand in the market金融essay代写


eventually making homeowners unable to repay their loans. In 2008, the United States entered an inevitable economic crisis. Investors incurred huge losses from the investments they had made. The lack of transparency of financial leaders contributed to the occurrence of the Great Recession because the public could not make appropriate investment choices.

The financial leaders of the United States had foreseen the potential of the housing boom leading to a financial crisis; however, they kept reassuring the public about the stability of the housing sector (Temin, 2010). The financial leaders intended to get the attention of Congress without causing panic about the susceptibility of the housing sector.

The efforts by the financial leaders to get Congress to take action were futile because Congress was not convinced that the economic system was on the verge of plummeting. Congress was unable to make appropriate regulations for the hypothetical crisis without reliable evidence. The government intervened only after the Great Recession had occurred.

The burst of the housing boom would have affected the mortgage sector alone;金融essay代写


however, banks and financial institutions had placed too many bets on the economic sector. Insurance companies had also been involved in the housing boom through the provision of their services to investors. As such, the financial crisis affected the mortgage sector and ended up disrupting the entire financial system of the United States. Credit markets could no longer function,

investors could not predict the future of the economy, and insurance companies were rendered unable to rescue their clients from the crisis. Consequently, economic activities came to a halt. International trade was disrupted, which dragged the countries of the world into the economic crisis (Temin, 2010). There were huge investment losses and high unemployment rates.

Congress would have prevented the Great Recession if it a clear understanding of the potential of an economic meltdown. The implementation of appropriate policies or regulations has the potential to prevent the occurrence of a financial crisis. Europe took it upon itself to implement policies that would drive the region out of the economic crisis.

The policies involved increasing oversight of the economic sector to ensure that increased investment in a specific sector of the market does not increase the susceptibility of a financial crisis (Braun, 2015). The freedom to intentionally move investment capital is one of the factors that led to the Great Recession.

Governments perceived the economic crisis as a learning experience to ensure that there is an implementation of appropriate economic regulations that control actions in the market.

Combination of Angle 1 and Angle 2金融essay代写


According to Temin (2010), the Great Depression and Great Recession occurred because of the intentional movement of capital to a single economic sector. Wall Street investors had focused their resources on the stock market sector because of the high profitability rate. On the other hand, banks and financial institutions had focused their capital on the housing sector because of the housing boom experienced until 2008.

The similarity between the Great Depression and the Great Recession is that the stock market and housing boom may have proved profitable at first; however, they reached their highest before experiencing an investable decline. Subsequently, two financial crises affected the economy of almost every country of the world due to increased interaction or economic exchange through trade.

Countries of the world took a couple of years before they could recover from the adverse effects of the financial crises. The government of the United States introduced appropriate policies, such as The Recovery Act,

to recover from the Great Recession (Kirshner, 2014).金融essay代写


Europe also embarked on a journey to recover from the Great Recession by introducing similar public policies between 2008 and 2013 (Braun, 2015). Congress and financial leaders who had foreseen the economic meltdown also learned lessons from the economic crises.

Governments of the world have increased their oversight and intervention in the economic sector to prevent similar economic crises due to the intentional movement of capital. There is also a need to understand the difference between the two economic crises. The first one was caused by the stock market boom,

while the second one was caused by the housing boom. This difference highlights that future economic crises may be caused by different factors.

Emergence of Angle 3金融essay代写


Ciuriak (2019) contends that the superpower countries of the world could be engaging in a technological war, especially in a world where the economy is data-driven. The superpower countries also engage in foreign trade, which means that the trade war fueled by technology could have a significant influence on the economies of the world. The strife for the superpower position follows the notion of the winner takes most.

Technology also helps countries make transformative investments that revolutionize the economies of nations. Increased focus on investing in technology without appropriate evaluation of the impacts could lead to financial crises if there is a lack of regulatory policies.

The ongoing US-China trade war provides an example of how the differences between the superpower countries could disrupt international trade and lead to a financial crisis.

The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic appeared to affect the healthcare sector primarily;


however, the pandemic suffices to present a significant fair of challenges to the economic sector (Baldwin & Weder di Mauro, 2020). The pandemic reduced consumer spending and increased the unemployment rate in the world. Low income from investments also led to the closure of businesses. The pandemic forced people to stay at home due to fear of infections.

On the other hand, it is crucial to understand that the economies of the world are adversely affected by other factors like poverty and homelessness. The pandemic also appears to surge the death toll experienced by a country. The negative economic effects associated with the outbreak of Covid-19 provide a conclusion that the global health pandemic or similar health pandemics could halt economic activities,

eventually leading to financial crises.

Personal Valuation金融essay代写


The assessment of the past financial crises is a topic of interest because it helps highlight the contributing factors for economic crises like the Great Recession. The housing boom in the United States before 2007 had attracted investments from banks and financial institutions (Temin, 2010). The banks and financial institutions were involved in the intentional movement of capital,

which was a decision that significantly affected the entire financial system. Learning about the intentional movement of capital and its contribution to the 2008 financial crisis, as well as the Great Depression, is crucial to understanding the appropriate regulation or policies that could prevent future financial crises.

The topic can help governments understand the actions of investors,as well as their consequences, which warrants the development of appropriate public policies. Therefore, the topic of financial crises can help governments understand how to stabilize economies by controlling the key actors in an economy.

The topic helps create an understanding that there can be different causes of financial crises.金融essay代写


This creates awareness that future economic crises could be caused by different factors from the stock market and housing boom. The topic also highlights how the lack of transparency between financial leaders and the public could worsen the situation and make people experience significant losses. The topic also creates awareness of how Congress failed to respond to warnings by the financial leaders (Temin, 2010).

Governments of the world can also learn from the topic by understanding how Europe and the United States responded to the Great Recession through appropriate policies (Braun, 2015; Kirshner, 2014). The topic is also of interest because it helps discover how trade war fueled by technology and the Covid-19 pandemic have the potential to cause financial crises (Baldwin & Weder di Mauro, 2020).

Henceforth, the topic of the financial crisis helps create awareness. about the potential of future financial crises, which eventually leads to the implementation of preventive strategies.

The Topic Today and in the Future金融essay代写


It has been twelve years since the occurrence of the Great Recession, and most countries have recovered from the financial crises. Countries are currently focusing on growing their economies in a bid to address prevalent issues such as homelessness and unemployment. The United States has recuperated from the Great Recession and sustained its economy to remain a superpower country.

Congress has also embarked on making appropriate policies that would prevent future financial crises, such as The Recovery Act. The occurrence of an economic meltdown similar to the Great Recession could remove the United States from the superpower position. The particular setback would make the United States a loser of the ongoing US-China trade war (Ciuriak, 2019; Kirshner, 2014).

Thus, the country has committed to regulating and overseeing the economic sector to prevent future financial crises.The ongoing trade war fueled by technology and the recent outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic have the potential to cause financial crises.

The occurrences appear to increase the unemployment rate, lead to homelessness, increase poverty rates, and disrupt international trade (Baldwin & Weder di Mauro, 2020; Ciuriak, 2019).In the future, the governments of the countries of the world could understand the shortcomings of the past governments that led to the occurrence of the financial crises.金融essay代写

The lessons from the past financial crises.could ensure that governments can act on hypothetical crises through regulations and public policies.

Governments can also learn how to control the financial crises of other or foreign countries from affecting their states. In this case, governments could identify ways to enhance self-reliance and improvement of the internal manufacturing sector.
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数学代写



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References


Baldwin, R., & Weder di Mauro, B. (2020). Economics in the Time of COVID-19.

Braun, B. (2015). Preparedness, crisis management, and policy change: The euro area at the critical juncture of 2008–2013.

The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 17(3), 419-441.

Ciuriak, D. (2019). A trade war fuelled by technology. Opinion, January, 11.

Kirshner, J. (2014). American power after the financial crisis. Cornell University Press.

Temin, P. (2010). The great recession & the great depression. Daedalus, 139(4), 115-124.

金融essay代写




2008年全球金融危机及其对未来备灾的影响


抽象的

本文的目的是调查2008年的全球金融危机,以了解其如何影响未来的准备工作。文献综述涵盖了与大萧条和大萧条有关的问题。资本的有意流动似乎是导致这两次金融危机的一个因素。繁荣的股票市场导致了大萧条,而房地产繁荣则导致了大萧条。国会未能回应金融领导人的警告是由于缺乏对假设危机的理解。没有证据证明2008年可能发生金融危机。目前,由技术推动的贸易战和Covid-19大流行的爆发似乎是造成金融危机的潜在原因。将来,美国政府可能需要确定有效的法规,以控制经济部门并应对潜在的金融危机。

 

2008年全球金融危机及其对未来备灾的影响
介绍
如果没有缓解策略或复苏干预措施,金融危机有可能削弱一个国家的经济。 2007-2008年的全球金融危机对世界经济产生了不利影响,各国花了几年时间才恢复过来。对金融业缺乏适当的监管导致了2008年金融危机的发生,导致银行被允许参与衍生品的对冲基金交易。银行选择提供抵押贷款,以实现仅利息贷款的盈利销售(Temin,2010年)。但是,抵押贷款供应的增加导致住房价格下降,房主再也无法负担这些费用。美国经济部门陷入了被称为“大萧条”的金融危机。美国政府必须通过适当的法规进行干预,以帮助经济从金融危机中复苏。
2008年的大萧条发生在1930年代的大萧条之后的几十年。大萧条的主要原因是1929年的股市崩盘。在1920年代,股价上涨到了意外的水平,最终促成了历史性的扩张(Temin,2010年)。但是,历史性的扩张在1920年代末期不可避免地下降,导致持续了近十年的经济危机。经济危机几乎影响了每个国家的经济,从而导致投资下降,消费者支出恶化以及失业率大幅上升。大萧条的原因与大萧条的原因不同,这意味着未来的金融危机可能是由诸如健康大流行等其他因素引起的。各国需要从经济衰退中吸取教训,以采取有效措施,为今后的备灾做准备。
文献评论
角度1:大萧条
中央银行家造成的经济失衡在金融危机的发生中起着重要作用。中央银行认为,他们可以通过有意的资本流动来控制通货膨胀和通货紧缩。但是,计算失误有可能助长诸如1930年代大萧条之类的经济危机。在1920年代,股票市场经历了历史性的扩张。股市价格的上涨促使华尔街投资者有意将其资本转移到股市领域,因为它有望带来高投资回报(Temin,2010年)。但是,股票市场价格持续上涨,直到1929年不可避免地下跌。股票市场崩溃导致华尔街投资者损失了数百万美元的投资,最终导致了经济危机。在忽略了经济的其他重要部门的同时,对股票市场的投资导致了大萧条。
角度2:经济大衰退
有意将资本转移到经济的特定部门,而忽略了其他部门,这也是导致2008年金融危机的一个因素。抵押贷款部门从2004年开始为银行机构带来了可观的投资回报。从2004年到2007年。银行决定利用有利可图的领域,并决定向房主提供仅利息的贷款。银行和其他金融机构打算通过有意将资本转移到抵押部门来赚取巨额利润。但是,银行机构的行动造成了经济失衡(Temin,2010年)。此外,抵押贷款的供应超过了市场的需求,最终使房主无法偿还贷款。 2008年,美国进入了不可避免的经济危机。投资者因进行了投资而蒙受了巨大损失。
财务线索缺乏透明度由于公众无法做出适当的投资选择,人们为大萧条的发生做出了贡献。美国的金融领导人已经预见到了房地产繁荣可能导致金融危机的可能性。但是,他们不断向公众保证住房部门的稳定性(Temin,2010年)。财政领导人打算引起国会的注意,而不会引起对住房部门敏感性的恐慌。财政领导人要求国会采取行动的努力是徒劳的,因为国会不确信经济体系正处于暴跌的边缘。如果没有可靠的证据,国会将无法为假设的危机制定适当的法规。政府只有在大萧条发生后才进行干预。
住房热潮的爆发将仅对抵押贷款部门产生影响;但是,银行和金融机构对经济部门的赌注过多。保险公司还通过向投资者提供服务来参与房地产繁荣。因此,金融危机影响了抵押部门,并最终破坏了美国的整个金融体系。信贷市场不再运转,投资者无法预测经济的未来,保险公司也无法挽救客户摆脱危机。结果,经济活动停止了。国际贸易受到干扰,这使世界各国陷入了经济危机(Temin,2010年)。存在巨大的投资损失和高失业率。
如果国会清楚地认识到经济崩溃的可能性,本来可以阻止大衰退。实施适当的政策或法规有可能防止发生金融危机。欧洲自行承担起执行使该地区摆脱经济危机的政策。这些政策包括加强对经济部门的监督,以确保增加对特定市场领域的投资不会增加金融危机的敏感性(Braun,2015)。有意转移投资资本的自由是导致大萧条的因素之一。各国政府将经济危机视为一种学习经验,以确保实施适当的经济法规来控制市场行为。
角度1和角度2的组合
根据泰明(Temin)(2010)的说法,大萧条和大衰退是由于资本有意向单一经济部门转移而发生的。由于高获利率,华尔街投资者将他们的资源集中在股市领域。另一方面,由于直到2008年都经历了房地产繁荣,银行和金融机构才将资金集中在房地产领域。大萧条和大萧条之间的相似之处在于,股市和房地产繁荣最初可能已经证明是有利可图的;但是,在经历可投资的下降之前,它们达到了最高点。随后,由于贸易互动或经济交流的增加,发生了两次金融危机,几乎影响了世界上每个国家的经济。
世界各国花了几年时间才能够从金融危机的不利影响中恢复过来。美国政府出台了适当的政策,例如《复苏法》,以从大萧条中复苏(Kirshner,2014年)。欧洲也踏上了从大衰退中复苏的征途,在2008年至2013年期间推出了类似的公共政策(Braun,2015)。曾预见到经济崩溃的国会和财政领导人也从经济危机中吸取了教训。世界各国政府加强了对经济部门的监督和干预,以防止由于资本的有意流动而引起的类似经济危机。还需要了解两个经济危机之间的区别。第一个是由股市繁荣引起的,而第二个是由房地产繁荣引起的。这种差异突出表明,未来的经济危机可能是由不同的因素引起的。
角度3的出现
Ciuriak(2019)认为,世界超级大国可能正在进行技术战争,特别是在经济是数据驱动的世界中。超级大国也从事对外贸易,这意味着技术推动的贸易战可能会对世界经济产生重大影响。超级大国地位的争夺遵循了获胜者的观念。技术还可以帮助各国进行变革性的投资,从而彻底改变国家的经济。在没有适当评估影响的情况下,越来越多地将重点放在技术投资上可能导致财务
Yóuyú gōngzhòng wúfǎ zuò chū shìdàng de tóuzī xuǎnzé, rénmen w如果缺乏监管政策,就会发生危机。正在进行的中美贸易战提供了一个例子,说明了超级大国之间的分歧如何破坏国际贸易并导致金融危机。
Covid-19大流行的爆发似乎主要影响医疗保健行业。然而,大流行足以给经济部门带来重大挑战(Baldwin&Weder di Mauro,2020年)。大流行减少了消费者的支出并增加了世界上的失业率。来自投资的低收入也导致了企业的倒闭。由于担心受到感染,大流行迫使人们呆在家里。另一方面,至关重要的是要了解世界经济受到诸如贫困和无家可归之类的其他因素的不利影响。大流行似乎也增加了一个国家的死亡人数。与Covid-19爆发相关的负面经济影响得出的结论是,全球健康大流行或类似的健康大流行可能会停止经济活动,最终导致金融危机。
个人评估
对过去的金融危机进行评估是一个有趣的话题,因为它有助于突出显示诸如大衰退之类的经济危机的成因。 2007年之前,美国的房地产繁荣吸引了银行和金融机构的投资(Temin,2010年)。银行和金融机构参与了资本的有意流动,这一决定对整个金融体系产生了重大影响。了解资本的有意流动及其对2008年金融危机以及大萧条的影响,对于理解可以预防未来金融危机的适当法规或政策至关重要。该主题可以帮助政府了解投资者的行为及其后果,从而有必要制定适当的公共政策。因此,金融危机这一主题可以帮助政府了解如何通过控制经济中的关键参与者来稳定经济。
该主题有助于加深人们对可能导致金融危机的原因的理解。这使人们意识到,未来的经济危机可能是由股票市场和房地产繁荣带来的不同因素造成的。该主题还强调了财务负责人和公众之间缺乏透明度会如何使局势恶化并使人们遭受重大损失。该主题还使人们意识到国会如何应对金融领导人的警告(Temin,2010年)。世界各国政府也可以通过了解欧洲和美国如何通过适当的政策应对大萧条来学习这一主题(Braun,2015; Kirshner,2014)。这个话题也很有趣,因为它有助于发现技术和Covid-19大流行引发的贸易战如何导致金融危机(Baldwin&Weder di Mauro,2020年)。此后,金融危机的主题有助于提高人们对未来金融危机潜在可能性的认识,最终导致实施预防策略。
今天和将来的话题
大衰退发生已经十二年了,大多数国家已经从金融危机中恢复过来。各国目前正在集中精力发展经济,以解决诸如无家可归和失业之类的普遍问题。美国已从大萧条中恢复过来,并维持其经济地位,继续保持超级大国的地位。国会还着手制定适当的政策来防止未来的金融危机,例如《复苏法案》。类似于大萧条的经济崩溃的发生可能使美国脱离超级大国的位置。这次挫折将使美国成为正在进行的中美贸易战的失败者(Ciuriak,2019; Kirshner,2014)。因此,该国致力于监管和监督经济部门,以防止未来发生金融危机。
技术推动下的持续贸易战以及最近爆发的Covid-19大流行有可能引起金融危机。这些事件似乎增加了失业率,导致无家可归,增加了贫困率并扰乱了国际贸易(Baldwin&Weder di Mauro,2020; Ciuriak,2019)。将来,世界各国政府可能会理解导致金融危机发生的过去政府的缺点。从过去的金融危机中汲取的教训可以确保政府可以通过法规和公共政策对假设的危机采取行动。各国政府还可以学习如何控制其他国家或外国的金融危机,以免影响其国家。在这种情况下,政府可以找出增强自力更生的方法改善内部制造业。

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