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biological代写 Question and Answers Describe the theory behind classical biological control.Classical biological control is the introduction..


Question and Answers

Describe the theory behind classical biological control.Classical biological control is the introduction of a biological control agent in the ecosystem as a way of finding a solution to a particular ecological imbalance particularly in pest control (Heimpel & Cock, 2018).

The main objective of the classical biological control is to establish a balance where a particular organism is thriving in the absence of natural enemy perhaps because it migrated without it.

This theory is mainly used in parasitology but also used in microbial pathogens, predators and nematodes to reduce the population of a specific organism. The main target of biological control includes insects, mites and weeds.

Although biological control is natural control which maintains population in an ecosystem, sometime the population of a particular biotic and abiotic organism might go beyond the limit most due to lack of predators.biological代写

How are modes of dispersal related to the environmental requirements of an organism?

Using plant seeds as an example, describe some advantages of zoochoric dispersal over other modes of dispersal.Dispersal is the movement and migration of organisms and as a result of the breeding of organisms from one area to another (Burgess, Baskett, Grosberg, Morgan, & Strathmann, 2016). The mode of dispersal depends on the type of organism.

Dispersal is used to regulate population size and density of organism in a specific area. The environmental requirement of an organism determines the mode used. For instance, animals migrate from a high-density area to a lower density area as a way of reducing competition in breeding and foods as well as reducing inbreeding.

Plants that depend on animals for dispersal most grow in strategic environments where they can be attached to the animals. Similarly, those dependent on water for dispersal grows near water bodies. Notably, organisms develop characteristic suited to a particular mode of dispersion.biological代写 


zoochoric dispersion has three main advantages over other modes of dispersion (Evstigneev, Korotkov, Murashev, & Voevodin, 2017; Trolliet, Forget, Doucet, Gillet, & Hambuckers, 2017). Animal dispersion can be a way of protecting the seed from other predator and hence reduce the population near the parent plant.

Some seeds need to break dominancy, and endozoochory helps in breaking it. Most importantly is that it can allow colonisation of a new region as some animals like birds move long distances.

Name and describe three important mutualisms in post-disturbance environments.  Include in your answer to how the mutualism increases the niche breadth of each organism involved.

Mutualism is the relationship between organisms where each benefit (Bronstein, 2015). Mutuality can take the form of obligate-obligate, obligate-facultative and facultative-facultative. Facultative mutualist is where both organisms continue to reproduce in the absence of mutualist (Cropp & Norbury, 2018).

Obligate mutualist is where the population of the organisms would go extinct in the absence of mutualist (2018).biological代写

Since each organism can survive independently in Facultative mutualist but benefits both to remain together, the organism can increase its niche breath through resource-resource mutualism and service-resource mutualism. For instance,

the mutualism between algae and corals in which algae nutrients from the corals and coral get sugar from algae — another example mutuality between honeybee and flowers.

The honey gets resources in the form of nectar while the flower receives services in the way of pollination. Similarly, in obligate mutualist, since the organism cannot survive without each other, they increase their niche breadth by serving and supporting each other — for instance, ants and acacia tree.

Ants get food and shelter from acacia while ants defend the plant from herbivores.

Mutualism is defined as benefiting both parties in a relationship. However, some mutualisms may be detrimental to plants. Explain how a symbiont could be both a benefit and a detriment to a plant.biological代写

A symbiotic relationship exists where the organism benefits but there are others where one organism does not benefit, but rather the mutuality becomes detrimental (Zeilinger et al., 2015). Symbiont benefits plants provide support, food and shelter — for instance, mycorrhizas which have symbiotic relationships with some fungi and the plant's roots.

The fungi help the plant to get nutrients and water while it benefits with sugars from the plant. However, sometimes symbiotic relationships can be detrimental to the plants notably in parasitic symbiotic relationships. In a symbiotic relationship, the plant host gives signs of decreased growth rates, fecundity or lethality.

For instance, Colletotrichum Magna has Sinp + Ihp infection characteristic in watermelon fruits.

Describe the historical fire regime that likely occurred in Ponderosa Pine forests along the Front Range of Colorado. What has changed, if anything, and what problems have arisen because of it?

There are nine fires which have burned down the Colorado Front Range since 2002. These fires were dangerous and complicated interfaces that led to the death of many firefighters and residents as well as the destruction of large portions of the forest.biological代写 

The cause of the fire was mostly blamed on the dense forest as a result of aggressive fire-suppression since the early 1900s (Rother & Veblen, 2016).

The thick forest cover made the forest prone to severe fires when they occur. However, some areas were affected more than others thus changing the shape of the forest (Battaglia, Gannon, Brown, Fornwalt, Cheng, & Huckaby, 2018). The areas affected the most caused death of high canopy and hence loss of seed sources which resulted in opening woodlands.

In moderately burned areas, the canopy was low

and they have the possibility of regeneration with suitable climatic conditions. Whereas areas which were not destroyed by the fire and have remained intact with closed canopies. Generally, the shape of the forest changed with the effects of fire.

What is a compounding disturbance? Give an example (ecosystem and disturbances) and how this compares to a repeat disturbance or interacting disturbance (not necessarily compounding)?

Compounding disturbance is aggregating the effect of wildfire, clearcutting and prescribed burning which are associated with divergence in forest traits. As such, compounding disturbance is the effects of repeated destruction of forest communities. For instance,

when wildfire had repeatedly destroyed Canadian boreal forest which is dominated by jack pine

the pines have developed a mechanism to survive a fire or being destroyed by fire (Brandt, Flannigan, Maynard, Thompson, & Volney, 2013). However, the resilience of boreal forest to wildfire is different from that created by disturbance from clearcutting.biological代写


Bronstein, J. L. (Ed.). (2015). Mutualism. Oxford University Press, USA.

Brandt, J. P., Flannigan, M. D., Maynard, D. G., Thompson, I. D., & Volney, W. J. A. (2013). An introduction to Canada’s boreal zone: ecosystem processes, health, sustainability, and environmental issues. Environmental Reviews, 21(4), 207-226.

Battaglia, M. A., Gannon, B., Brown, P. M., Fornwalt, P. J., Cheng, A. S., & Huckaby, L. S. (2018). Changes in forest structure since 1860 in ponderosa pine-dominated forests in the Colorado and Wyoming Front Range, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 422, 147-160.

Burgess, S. C., Baskett, M. L., Grosberg, R. K., Morgan, S. G., & Strathmann, R. R. (2016). When is dispersal for dispersal? Unifying marine and terrestrial perspectives. Biological Reviews, 91(3), 867-882.

Cropp, R., & Norbury, J. (2018). Goby–shrimp mutualism: Costs and benefits of obligate versus facultative strategies. Ecological Complexity, 36, 22-29.

Evstigneev, O. I., Korotkov, V. N., Murashev, I. A., & Voevodin, P. V. (2017). Zoochory and peculiarities of forest community formation: A review. Russian Journal of Ecosystem Ecology.

Heimpel, G. E., & Cock, M. J. (2018). Shifting paradigms in the history of classical biological control. BioControl, 63(1), 27-37.

Rother, M. T., & Veblen, T. T. (2016). Limited conifer regeneration following wildfires in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. Ecosphere, 7(12).biological代写

Trolliet, F., Forget, P. M., Doucet, J. L., Gillet, J. F., & Hambuckers, A. (2017). Frugivorous birds influence the spatial organization of tropical forests through the generation of seedling recruitment foci under zoochoric trees. Acta Oecologia, 85, 69-76.

Zeilinger, S., Gupta, V. K., Dahms, T. E., Silva, R. N., Singh, H. B., Upadhyay, R. S., ... & Nayak S, C. (2015). Friends or Foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants. FEMS microbiology reviews, 40(2), 182-207.