Sociology of Sport and Inequality
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社会学paper代写 Sports sociology is the study of the link between sport and the main societal domains. It investigates how aspects of life like..


Sociology of Sport and Inequality社会学paper代写

Sports sociology is the study of the link between sport and the main societal domains. It investigates how aspects of life like politics, culture, the media, and values shape sport and how race, gender, and religion influence sport (Serra 2015, p.57). There are many explanations why it is appropriate to investigate the vital role that sport plays in society.

The following are the three most compelling reasons: Sport is a part of daily life; it is linked to essential life ideas and concepts (such as gender and inequality), linked to main social spheres (Serra 2015). In this essay, the discussion focuses on how studying the sociology of sport helps understand inequality.


体育社会学是对体育与主要社会领域之间联系的研究。 它研究了政治,文化,媒体和价值观等生活方面如何影响体育运动以及种族,性别和宗教如何影响体育运动(Serra 2015,p.57)。 有很多解释为什么适合研究体育在社会中的重要作用。 以下是三个最令人信服的原因:运动是日常生活的一部分; 它与基本生活理念和概念(例如性别和不平等)相关联,并与主要社会领域相关联(Serra 2015)。 在本文中,讨论重点是研究运动社会学如何帮助理解不平等。

Gender Inequality in Sport from a Feminism Perspective社会学paper代写

Sport in society research is essential because the two are intertwined in how individuals think about and perceive the world. Sociologists investigate the ties between sport and ideologies to understand them better. Ideologies are collections of similar concepts that individuals construct to make sense of the universe (Eagleton 2014).

Thus, they are crucial components of cultures as they encompass the values, belief systems, and perspectives that underpin people's emotions, opinions, and behaviour. Different cultures come up with their collection of concepts to make sense of the world and give it meaning.

In essence, the feminist theory can be used to explain sports discrimination.社会学paper代写

The feminist theory is based on the premise that awareness of gender and gender relations is needed to understand social life. This theory arose from a general discontent and frustration with intellectual norms that prioritise men's beliefs, experiences, and observations while ignoring or undervaluing women's (Scraton & Flintoff 2013).

In a patriarchal society, social life is seen as profoundly gendered. On the other hand, sport is seen as a collection of gendered behaviours centred on masculine ideals and encounters. The generally accepted rules and the celebration of strong, muscular, and resilient men exempt women who are required to be attractive in sports such as gymnastics or tennis.


女权主义理论基于这样一个前提,即必须具备对性别和性别关系的认识才能理解社会生活。 该理论源于对知识规范的普遍不满和沮丧,这些知识规范优先考虑男人的信仰,经验和观察,而忽略或低估了女性(Scraton&Flintoff 2013)。

在重男轻女的社会中,社会生活被视为具有深远的性别特征。 另一方面,体育被视为以男性理想和遭遇为中心的性别行为的集合。 人们普遍接受的规则以及对坚强,肌肉和弹性的男人的庆祝活动使那些在诸如体操或网球之类的体育运动中具有吸引力的妇女获得豁免。


Feminist researchers want to see how sport reconstructs sexism through sexuality, physicality, and the body, the way females are misrepresented in sports media reporting, and the way females might use techniques that stand up to gender ideology or question it (Antunovic & Whiteside 2018).

Our understanding of how culture influences athletic activity and gender-related sports concerns are well captured by feminist theory. For example, it is common knowledge that equality between men and women is challenging to attain since it needs sharing resources, which ultimately creates competition.

Homophobia impacts athletic activity and the encounters of heterosexual women who sometimes are labelled gay if they are typically involved in sports reserved for men. This theory also examines gay women's experiences in sport. Feminists advocate sports that represent women's interests and use sports as sites of inclusivity.


however, cannot help explain all the aspects of sport and inequality as it has several weaknesses. The theory focuses primarily on social justice, equal opportunity, and current agendas that weaken equity in sexuality, gender, social class, ethnicity, race, and disability. Even so, no general rules exist across societies for the interconnected interactions of women of various races,

ages, cultures, abilities, and religions. In the same manner, not every woman faces the same prejudice and unfairness. Second, feminists believe that all women have the same interests, yet this may not be the case in reality. Some women might be content to fulfil the conventional gender roles required of them (such as femininity and motherhood) and feel that sport is a "man's domain."


但是,由于它有几个弱点,所以不能帮助解释运动和不平等的所有方面。 该理论主要关注社会正义,机会均等以及当前议程,这些议程削弱了性,性别,社会阶层,种族,种族和残疾方面的公平性。 即便如此,整个社会也没有针对各种种族妇女相互联系的通用规则,

年龄,文化,能力和宗教信仰。 以同样的方式,并不是每个女人都面临着同样的偏见和不公平。 其次,女权主义者认为所有妇女都有相同的利益,但现实情况并非如此。 一些女性可能满足于履行其所要求的常规性别角色(例如女性气质和孕产),并感到运动是“男人的领域”。

Gender and Sport Inequality社会学paper代写

Gender ideology about the role of men and women in sport can easily lead to sexism, so it is critical to research the connection between sport and culture by examining how women and men are viewed in their surrounding society and how this translates into the sporting climate. Broadly, gender ideology collects common ideas regarding masculinity,

femininity, and male-female relationships (Serra 2015). These concepts describe what it is to be a man or a woman, analyse, assess, and decide what they regard gender as usual and moral. It is so firmly embedded in every cultural identity that many seldom consider and rarely challenge it. People assume and use it to understand the world. Case in point, Pink is females' colour,

blue males' colour, and dolls are meant for girls while weapons are meant for boys.Gender roles in modern culture, especially in sports, have begun to shift dramatically over the last century. Women have started to engage in many historically

masculine sports,社会学paper代写

and they have embodied masculine qualities such as hostility, brutality, and power (Serra 2015). Some of these sports, such as rugby, soccer, and hockey, have been viewed as "masculine," with many believing that women cannot compete due to their physically challenging nature. Instead, women are supposed to compete in sports that reflect feminine qualities like beauty and charm while avoiding physical contact,

like gymnastics, tennis, and golf. An example of how gender ideology impedes athletic performance can be drawn from Caster Semenya's case (Aboud 2020).

Most societies' dominant gender ideology has historically assumed that men are biologically stronger than women in any task that requires stamina, physical abilities, and emotional intelligence (Scraton & Flintoff, 2013). As a result, when an individual throws or kicks a ball poorly or incompetently, he or she will be criticised for throwing or kicking "like a girl."

According to gender theory, sport is gruelling and thus contributes to the development of boys into men. Simultaneously, when women succeed at a category of sport usually reserved for men (like contact sport), such beliefs prompt individuals to be puzzled and to claim that playing sport is abnormal for 'true' women. They argue that heterosexuality, womanhood,



例如体操,网球和高尔夫。可以从Caster Semenya的案例(Aboud 2020)中得出一个性别意识形态如何阻碍运动表现的例子。



and sporting success,社会学paper代写

especially in physically challenging or high-contact sports, are incompatible. This ideology has also contributed to the labelling of powerful, competent female athletes as a lesbian.Similarly, this ideology can be seen in the actions of coaches regarding men's sports teams. Male players who make mistakes or fail to play vigorously sufficient are frequently chastised or "blamed" for "playing like girls."

This suggests that being or displaying feminine ideals equates to failure. For several years, these gender ideas specifically worked to favour boys and men in sport while hinder girls and women, who were never deemed equal to men when it came to resource allocation and providing opportunities and motivation to participate in sport (Hargreaves 2013).The issues of gender and sports equality also include national agendas,access to funding,社会学paper代写

cuts in budgets and priorities, women's vocation to professional sport, focus on 'cosmetic fitness' and sports women's media, and insufficient coverage dehumanisation of women's sport. Girls are also portrayed as cheerleaders in the position of sensationalising competitive male sport. However, the marginalisation of women's sport is associated with the mechanism of cultural production.

The increased participation of girls and women in sport has become the single most significant shift in sport in the world over the last decade. Increased participation rates in sports for girls and women have not come easily. They are the product of many people's and organisations' tireless efforts. While significant progress has been made,

gender equality is still lacking in many sports institutions worldwide.社会学paper代写

When we consider the number of competitions and the number of women who participate in the Olympics, we see a steady rise. Still, women make up just 44 per cent of all athletes (see figure 1 below).
Figure 1: Women's participation in each Summer Olympic Games as a proportion of total participation.


Source (Wikimedia.org. 2021)社会学paper代写

There are five reasons to be concerned about the rate and scale of potential growth in female and female sports participation:
1.Opposition from those who oppose reforms that favour powerful women
2.Women are underrepresented in decision-making roles.
3.Maintaining a focus on 'cosmetic health.'
4.Denigration of women's sport
5.The threat of homophobia and gay identification (Serra, 2015, p.78).
However, the increased participation of women and girls in the sport since the early 1970s is due to five factors. These include:
1.New opportunities
2.Equal rights law and government
3.The World Movement for Women's Rights
4.The wellness and fitness trend
5.Increased media attention of female athletes in sports (Serra 2015, p.79).
Overall, sports can help boys and girls interact in various ways, which can be a favourable or unfavourable outcome of participating in sports. Participation in sports interacts with boys into conventional gender roles, while comparable participation interacts with girls into non-traditional gender roles.

Female high school student-athletes who participate in athletics find it a way to reset gender norms, strengthening their sense of optimism and belonging.


This paper aimed to examine how studying the sociology of sport helps understand inequality. From the discussion, it can be argued that sport is a social construct. Individuals or society have a hand in shaping it into what it is now and what it will become in the future. Sports managers and all those interested in sports can consciously play this role by imagining what they want the sport to be and then trying to achieve that goal.


本文旨在研究体育社会学如何帮助理解不平等现象。 从讨论中可以看出,体育是一种社会建构。 个人或社会都可以将其塑造成现在的状态和将来的状态。 体育经理和所有对体育感兴趣的人可以通过想象自己想要的运动然后尝试实现该目标来自觉地扮演这个角色。

In this context, the paper has

shown how numerous sociological themes of gender occur in specific sports contexts and uses it to make the best decisions about sports management, preparing, arranging, implementing, or assessing.


Aboud, S.C., 2020. Policing Gender: The Rhetorical Framing of Sex in Women's Athletics (Doctoral dissertation).
Antunovic, D. and Whiteside, E., 2018. Feminist sports media studies: State of the field. In Feminist approaches to media theory and research (pp. 111-130). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Eagleton, T., 2014. Ideology. Routledge.
Hargreaves, J., 2013. Heroines of sport: The politics of difference and identity. Routledge.
Scraton, S. and Flintoff, A., 2013. Gender, feminist theory, and sport. A companion to sport, pp.96-111.
Serra, P. (2015). Sociology of Sport- In book: Principles of Sport Management (pp.57-93): Oxford Press University.
Wikimedia.org. (2021). [online] Available at: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Women_percent_summer_olympics.png [Accessed 23 Mar. 2021].