The Freemen’s Bureau: From Social Welfare to Segregation
Social Welfare代写 during the Reconstruction period after the American Civil War, popular name for the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and..
Freedmen’s Bureau (1864) Social Welfare代写
during the Reconstruction period after the American Civil War, popular name for the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands established by Congress to provide practical aid to millions newly freed African Americans in their transition from slavery to freedom. Headed by Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard, the Freedmen’s Bureau might be termed the first federal welfare agency.
Despite handicaps of inadequate funds and poorly trained personnel, the bureau-built hospitals for, and gave direct medical assistance to freedmen. Rations were distributed to impoverished blacks as well as whites.
Its greatest accomplishments were in education including black schools Social Welfare代写
And establish teacher-training institutions. Among the historically black colleges and universities that received aid from the bureau were Atlanta University and Fisk University, named for Gen. Clinton B. Fisk of the Tennessee Freedmen’s Bureau, who gave the school its original facilities in a former Union army barracks. Howard University, founded in 1867 through an act by the U.S. Congress, was named for Maj. Gen. Howard.
Less success was achieved in civil rights, for the bureau’s courts were poorly organized and short-lived, and only the barest forms of due process of law for freedmen could be sustained in the civil courts. Its most notable failure concerned the land itself. Thwarted by Pres. Andrew Johnson’s restoration of abandoned lands to pardoned Southerners and by the adamant refusal of Congress to consider any form of land redistribution,
The bureau was forced to oversee sharecropping arrangements that inevitably became oppressive. Congress, preoccupied with other national interests and responding to the continued hostility of white Southerners, terminated the bureau in July 1872.
并建立教师培训机构。在历史上获得该局援助的黑人学院和大学中有亚特兰大大学和菲斯克大学，以田纳西自由人局的克林顿·B·菲斯克将军的名字命名，他将学校原来的设施提供给了前联邦军营。霍华德大学于 1867 年通过美国国会的一项法案成立，以霍华德少将的名字命名。
在民权方面取得的成功较少，因为该局的法院组织不力且寿命很短，而且民事法院只能维持对自由人来说最基本的正当法律程序。它最显着的失败与土地本身有关。被 Pres 阻挠。安德鲁·约翰逊 (Andrew Johnson) 恢复被赦免的南方人废弃的土地，并且国会坚决拒绝考虑任何形式的土地重新分配，
该局被迫监督不可避免地变得具有压迫性的佃农安排。国会全神贯注于其他国家利益并应对南方白人的持续敌意，于 1872 年 7 月终止了该局。