社交焦虑症report代写 医学代写 护理essay代写 英国论文代写

Social Anxiety Disorder



社交焦虑症report代写 Norton and Price (2007) state that cognitive-behavioral therapy is an approach to the treatment of disorders that affect..



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Social Anxiety Case conceptualization


Critical Evaluation社交焦虑症report代写

Norton and Price (2007) state that cognitive-behavioral therapy is an approach to the treatment of disorders that affect the cognitive system, and it has gained widespread application in recent years. It emanates from behavioral therapy, which concentrates on cognitive, social learning theory, observational learning, cognitive theory, and therapy.

The authors affirm that through cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorders, people learn to respond to thoughts and feelings and engage in various behaviours that reduce fear. It also enables people to learn and practice social skills when they lack them. Numerous researchers such as Abramowitz (2013) have confirmed that CBT can treat social anxiety more effectively and efficiently than conventional therapy,

and it is still relevant in the modern-day. As Abramowitz (2013) states, CBT for social anxiety treatment involves an active and brief treatment where the client is trained and equipped with skills that can enable them to become their own therapists.

严格评估

Norton and Price(2007)指出,认知行为疗法是一种治疗影响认知系统的疾病的方法,并且近年来得到了广泛的应用。它源于行为疗法,它集中于认知,社会学习理论,观察性学习,认知理论和治疗。

作者申明,通过针对社交焦虑症的认知行为疗法,人们学会了对思想和情感的反应,并采取各种减少恐惧的行为。它还使人们在缺乏社交技能时学习和练习社交技能。 Abramowitz(2013)等众多研究人员证实,CBT可以比传统疗法更有效地治疗社交焦虑症,

在现代仍然很重要。正如Abramowitz(2013)所述,用于社交焦虑症治疗的CBT涉及一种积极而简短的治疗,在此过程中,服务对象受到培训并配备了可以使他们成为自己的治疗师的技能。




Treatment of social anxiety involves several steps,社交焦虑症report代写


including conducting an assessment that determines the specific situations that trigger anxiety. It also involves cognitive restructuring whereby the thoughts that trigger undue anxiety are identified, and they are subjected to intense tests of logic. The client also goes through mindfulness training, where he is taught how to attend to the present rather than getting caught up in the future possibilities. Finally,

they go through a systematic exposure that requires them to use mindfulness and cognitive skills, as Craske (2008) stated. He states that cognitive-behavioral therapies involve several interventions that are accountable for addressing emotional, psychological, and behavioral problems.

Contemporary Behavioural Therapies Theory社交焦虑症report代写


Behavioural therapies are the earliest forms of interventions, and they involve the use of a commonly used technique referred to as systematic desensitization (Craske et al. 2008). It is a form of exposure training where a person is exposed to anxiety-triggering situations gradually to learn to deal with fear over time.

This form of exposure has to be done gradually to be effective lest it causes more damage than good. With the introduction and advancement of technology, cognitive-behavioural therapy can be done over the internet, as presented by Hedman et al. (2008). I-CBT is becoming common in recent years, and research evidence points out that it is effective,

especially when done through support from a mental health professional, as Stangier (2016) presents. I-CBT follows a structured and systematic format in that it matches online applications such as self-help and therapist supported interventions. People with severe social anxiety find this form of therapy helpful, especially when they cannot leave home to attend in-person treatment (Heimberg 2002).社交焦虑症report代写

Heimberg (2002) states that This form of intervention is given by two therapists,社交焦虑症report代写


and it comprises different treatment components. Specifically, patients identify the automatic negative thoughts while identifying the co-variations between the thoughts and any anxious moods. They also assess the errors of logic and come up with rational thoughts for their automatic negative thoughts.

Patients are then allowed to face their increasingly feared challenging situations while being simulated in the therapy groups (Thurston et al., 2017). In these situations, the client has to use their cognitive restructuring approaches. The behavioral experiments are used to help the patient face their reactions to specific exposure experiences.

Heimberg(2002)指出,这种干预方式是由两名治疗师提供的,

它包含不同的治疗成分。 具体而言,患者识别自动消极思想,同时识别思想与任何焦虑情绪之间的协变。 他们还评估逻辑错误,并为他们的自动消极思想提出合理的思想。

然后让患者在治疗组中进行模拟时面对日益恐惧的挑战性情况(Thurston等人,2017)。 在这种情况下,客户必须使用他们的认知重构方法。 行为实验用于帮助患者面对特定暴露经历的反应。




Discussion社交焦虑症report代写


A systematic review of the research evidence passed the Johana Briggs Institute tool by having a significant representative sample, adequate sample size, sufficient data coverage of the identified sample, and appropriate statistical analysis, reliable and objective analysis of the condition research identified several confounding factors.

Abramowit (2013) notes that exposure therapy through the relaxation method is inconsistent with the theoretical models and treatment outcomes. He notes that exposure helps the client deal with social anxiety in the long term rather than relaxation used to provide temporary control intervention. The author also notes through observation that exposure can only be used as a treatment for conditioned fear.

The observations made by the author relate to the gap between theoretical models and clinical practice. He suggests that a clinician should learn and understand the theoretical underpinnings of exposure therapy to increase its effectiveness.

Benito and Walther (2016) state that the habituation model of exposure therapy is effective because it provides a structured contact with a feared situation with no chance or option of

avoidance.社交焦虑症report代写


This model uses the concept of habituation as stated by the authors, which takes place after a stimulation elicited has decreased without avoidance. Eckman and Shean (1997) note that habituation from exposures is most effective when the fear is activated when automatic negative thoughts are minimized.

Social anxiety is reduced across the exposure tasks. Benito and Walther (2016) state that the importance of fear activation has been measured through heart rate as a marker for fear activation through exposure therapy. The effectiveness of CBT as a next step treatment for people with social anxiety disorder varies across different patients, as stated by Rodebaugh et al. (2004).

Social anxiety disorder can be defined and treated while concentrating on specific internally impaired processes and modes of behaviour and attitudes (Stein and Stein 2008). The disorder can also be treated while focusing on the affected social structure. A patient should undertake a dyadic session that involves the patient and the therapist. A stable therapeutic relationship is established between the patient and the therapist.

社交焦虑症report代写

Borell-Carrio (2004)社交焦虑症report代写


states that the therapist should pay attention to any change in patient mood to assure them of their alliance. The patient has to be empowered to test the relationship and the therapeutic bond by managing autonomous decision making. It is important to avoid depressive decompensation by developing and maintaining the patient's social and professional materials and resources.社交焦虑症report代写

It is usually challenging for the patient to think positively and allow himself to perceive favorable feelings when faced with social situations without having high expectations for their performance, as stated by Norton and Price (2007). Group sessions in the first part of therapy are encouraged, and positive feedback from other patients with similar issues may make the client develop to have a stable sense of self-worth.

Therapist behaviour is a significant factor that contributes to such stability whereby the therapist expresses a caring and demanding attitude as stead by Heimberg and Turk (2006). After stabilizing the emotions of the patient and preventing relapse, the therapist can after establish an individual model of the Social anxiety disorder,

博雷尔·卡里奥(Borell-Carrio)(2004)

指出治疗师应注意患者情绪的任何变化,以确保他们的联盟。必须通过管理自主决策来授权患者测试这种关系和治疗纽带。通过开发和维护患者的社会和专业材料与资源来避免抑郁失代偿很重要。

正如诺顿和普莱斯(Norton and Price,2007)所说,患者面对积极的思考并让自己在面对社交场合时能感受到良好的感觉而又对他们的表现没有很高的期望通常是具有挑战性的。鼓励在治疗的第一部分进行小组讨论,并且其他有类似问题的患者的积极反馈也可能使服务对象发展为具有稳定的自我价值感。

治疗师的行为是促成这种稳定性的重要因素,由此治疗师表现出关怀和要求的态度,这与Heimberg和Turk(2006)持平。在稳定患者的情绪并防止复发后,治疗师可以建立社交焦虑症的个体模型,




which involves the explanatory model of the patient.社交焦虑症report代写


This model includes social anxiety when faced with interacting and performing situations that expect negative feedback. This approach may consist of biographical material, the purpose of the problems, and information concerning the development and maintenance of social anxiety (Pine et al., 2015). The patient should be allowed to select together with the therapist.

This recent and robust social situation can trigger anxiety from the patient and go through the situation rather than avoiding it.

The therapist should ask for any negative cognitions from the patient and highlight them in the model template (Heimberg and Turk 2006).

Additionally, the therapist should note and record the patient's anxiety symptoms, such as their feelings when faced with automatic negative thoughts. The patient's security behaviour should also be noted, and the self-perception can be introduced by the therapist as the core model. The attention of the patient should be guided towards themselves,

and their impressions from others should be directed externally.社交焦虑症report代写


Hope et al. (2004) state that the core position of the self-focused attention becomes clear after the patient discusses with another patient in the groups.Conclusion .Cognitive therapy performs better and yields better results than relaxation and exposure therapy, as confirmed by Leichsenring et al. (n.d).

Cognitive and exposure therapy also performs better than relaxation when treating patients with a social anxiety disorder. Evidence suggests that online treatment is a feasible and effective treatment for SAD patients (Hedman et al., 2011). Therefore,社交焦虑症report代写

this treatment model can be used on Peter because the results of biological and psychological therapies are based on computer-delivered psychological therapy as presented by Inquiry et al. (2004); Nordgreen et al. (2018). However, face-to-face directed therapy seems to be clinically effective and superior compared to online therapy due to the nature and features of the social anxiety faced by the patient.

The overview provided presents the evidence for the efficiency of the treatment models for social anxiety disorders. The synthesized and combined conclusion for the assessment shows that recent treatment models for the disorder are highly relevant because most of the social anxiety disorder cases are left untreated,

undertreated, and undetected within the traditional therapy models. Most patients suffering from SAD fail to receive standard treatment even through psychotherapy and pharmacological agents, as Clark et al. (2008) stated.

他们对他人的印象应该从外部引导。

霍普等。 Leichsenring等人(2004年)指出,在与另一组患者讨论之后,自我集中注意力的核心位置变得清晰。结论:认知疗法比放松疗法和暴露疗法效果更好,产生的效果更好。 (n.d)。

当治疗患有社交焦虑症的患者时,认知疗法和暴露疗法的效果也要好于放松疗法。有证据表明,在线治疗对于SAD患者是一种可行且有效的治疗方法(Hedman等,2011)。因此,社交忧症report代写

可以在Peter上使用该治疗模型,因为生物学和心理治疗的结果基于Inquiry等人提出的计算机提供的心理治疗。 (2004); Nordgreen等。 (2018)。然而,由于面对患者的社交焦虑的性质和特征,面对面定向疗法似乎在临床上比在线疗法有效并且优于在线疗法。

提供的概述为社交焦虑症治疗模型的有效性提供了证据。评估的综合综合结论表明,该疾病的最新治疗模式具有很高的相关性,因为大多数社交焦虑症患者都得不到治疗,

未被充分治疗,并且在传统治疗模型中未被发现。正如Clark等,大多数SAD患者甚至无法通过心理治疗和药物治疗也无法接受标准治疗。 (2008年)说。




References社交焦虑症report代写


Abramowitz, J. S. (2013). The practice of exposure therapy: Relevance of cognitive-behavioral theory and extinction theory. Behavior therapy, 44(4), 548-558.
Benito, K. G., & Walther, M. (2015). Journal of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, 6, 147-157.
Borrell-Carrió, F., Suchman, A. L., & Epstein, R. M. (2004). The biopsychosocial model 25 years later: principles, practice, and scientific inquiry. The Annals of Family Medicine, 2(6), 576-582.

Clark, D. M., Crozier, W. R., & Alden, L. E. (2005). A cognitive perspective on social phobia. The essential handbook of social anxiety for clinicians, 193-218.
Craske, M. G., Kircanski, K., Zelikowsky, M., Mystkowski, J., Chowdhury, N., & Baker, A. (2008). Optimizing inhibitory learning during exposure therapy. Behavior research and therapy, 46(1), 5-27.
Eckman, P. S., & Shean, G. D. (1997). Habituation of cognitive and physiological arousal and social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(12),

1113-1121.社交焦虑症report代写


Hedman, E., Andersson, G., Ljótsson, B., Andersson, E., Rück, C., Mörtberg, E., & Lindefors, N. (2011). Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive-behavioral group therapy for a social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. PloS one, 6(3), e18001.
Heimberg, R. G. (2002). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for a social anxiety disorder: current status and future directions. Biological psychiatry, 51(1), 101-108.

Heimberg, R. G., & Turk, C. L. (2006). Managing social anxiety: a cognitive-behavioral therapy approach: therapist guide. Oxford University Press.
Hope, D. A., Heimberg, R. G., & Juster, H. A. (2004). Managing social anxiety: A cognitive- behavioral therapy approach client workbook. Graywind Publications.

Inquiry, S., Epstein, R. M., & Legacy, G. E. S. (2004).社交焦虑症report代写


The biopsychosocial model 25 years later. Ann Family Med, 2(6), 576-582.
Leichsenring, F., Salzer, S., Beutel, M. E., Herpertz, S., Hiller, W., Hoyer, J., ... & Leibing, E. Long-term outcome of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(10), 1074-1082.
Nordgreen, T., Gjestad, R., Andersson, G., Carlbring, P., & Havik, O. E. (2018). Internet interventions, 13, 24-29.

Norton, P. J., & Price, E. C. (2007). A meta-analytic review of adult cognitive-behavioral treatment outcome across the anxiety disorders. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 195(6), 521-531.

Pine, D., Rothbaum, B. O., & Ressler, K. (Eds.). (2015). Primer on anxiety disorders: translational perspectives on diagnosis and treatment. Primer on.
Rodebaugh, T. L., Holaway, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (2004). The treatment of social anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(7), 883-908.
Stangier, U. (2016). New developments in cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. Current psychiatry reports, 18(3), 25.

Stein, M. B., & Stein, D. J. (2008).

Social anxiety disorder. The Lancet, 371(9618), 1115-1125.
Wong, Q. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2016). The etiology and maintenance of social anxiety disorder: A synthesis of complementary theoretical models and formulation of a new integrated model. Journal of affective disorders, 203, 84-100.

Thurston, M. D., Goldin, P., Heimberg, R., & Gross, J. J. (2017). Self-views in social anxiety disorder: The impact of CBT versus MBSR. Journal of anxiety disorders, 47, 83-90.

avoidance.社交焦虑症report代写


This model uses the concept of habituation as stated by the authors, which takes place after a stimulation elicited has decreased without avoidance. Eckman and Shean (1997) note that habituation from exposures is most effective when the fear is activated when automatic negative thoughts are minimized.

Social anxiety is reduced across the exposure tasks. Benito and Walther (2016) state that the importance of fear activation has been measured through heart rate as a marker for fear activation through exposure therapy. The effectiveness of CBT as a next step treatment for people with social anxiety disorder varies across different patients, as stated by Rodebaugh et al. (2004).

Social anxiety disorder can be defined and treated while concentrating on specific internally impaired processes and modes of behaviour and attitudes (Stein and Stein 2008).

The disorder can also be treated while focusing on the affected social structure.社交焦虑症report代写


A patient should undertake a dyadic session that involves the patient and the therapist. A stable therapeutic relationship is established between the patient and the therapist.Borell-Carrio (2004) states that the therapist should pay attention to any change in patient mood to assure them of their alliance.

The patient has to be empowered to test the relationship and the therapeutic bond by managing autonomous decision making. It is important to avoid depressive decompensation by developing and maintaining the patient's social and professional materials and resources. It is usually challenging for the patient to think positively and allow himself to perceive favorable feelings when faced with social situations without

having high expectations for their performance, as stated by Norton and Price (2007).社交焦虑症report代写


Group sessions in the first part of therapy are encouraged, and positive feedback from other patients with similar issues may make the client develop to have a stable sense of self-worth. Therapist behaviour is a significant factor that contributes to such stability whereby the therapist expresses a caring and demanding attitude as stead by Heimberg and Turk (2006).

After stabilizing the emotions of the patient and preventing relapse, the therapist can after establish an individual model of the Social anxiety disorder, which involves the explanatory model of the patient. This model includes social anxiety when faced with interacting and performing situations that expect negative feedback. This approach may consist of biographical material, the purpose of the problems,

and information concerning the development and maintenance of social anxiety (Pine et al., 2015).


The patient should be allowed to select together with the therapist. This recent and robust social situation can trigger anxiety from the patient and go through the situation rather than avoiding it.

The therapist should ask for any negative cognitions from the patient and highlight them in the model template (Heimberg and Turk 2006). Additionally, the therapist should note and record the patient's anxiety symptoms, such as their feelings when faced with automatic negative thoughts. The patient's security behaviour should also be noted,

and the self-perception can be introduced by the therapist as the core model. The attention of the patient should be guided towards themselves, and their impressions from others should be directed externally. Hope et al. (2004) state that the core position of the self-focused attention becomes clear after the patient discusses with another patient in the groups.

Conclusion社交焦虑症report代写


Cognitive therapy performs better and yields better results than relaxation and exposure therapy, as confirmed by Leichsenring et al. (n.d). Cognitive and exposure therapy also performs better than relaxation when treating patients with a social anxiety disorder. Evidence suggests that online treatment is a feasible and effective treatment for SAD patients (Hedman et al., 2011).

Therefore, this treatment model can be used on Peter because the results of biological and psychological therapies are based on computer-delivered psychological therapy as presented by Inquiry et al. (2004);

Nordgreen et al. (2018).社交焦虑症report代写


However face-to-face directed therapy seems to be clinically effective and superior compared to online therapy due to the nature and features of the social anxiety faced by the patient. The overview provided presents the evidence for the efficiency of the treatment models for social anxiety disorders. The synthesized and combined conclusion for the assessment shows that recent treatment models for

the disorder are highly relevant because most of the social anxiety disorder cases are left untreated, undertreated, and undetected within the traditional therapy models. Most patients suffering from SAD fail to receive standard treatment even through psychotherapy and pharmacological agents, as Clark et al. (2008) stated.






医学代写

护理学代写

References


Abramowitz, J. S. (2013). The practice of exposure therapy: Relevance of cognitive-behavioral theory and extinction theory. Behavior therapy, 44(4), 548-558.
Benito, K. G., & Walther, M. (2015). Journal of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, 6, 147-157.

Borrell-Carrió, F., Suchman, A. L., & Epstein, R. M. (2004). The biopsychosocial model 25 years later: principles, practice, and scientific inquiry. The Annals of Family Medicine, 2(6), 576-582.

Clark, D. M., Crozier, W. R., & Alden, L. E. (2005).


A cognitive perspective on social phobia. The essential handbook of social anxiety for clinicians, 193-218.
Craske, M. G., Kircanski, K., Zelikowsky, M., Mystkowski, J., Chowdhury, N., & Baker, A. (2008). Optimizing inhibitory learning during exposure therapy. Behavior research and therapy, 46(1), 5-27.

Eckman, P. S., & Shean, G. D. (1997). Habituation of cognitive and physiological arousal and social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(12), 1113-1121.

Hedman, E., Andersson, G., Ljótsson, B., Andersson, E., Rück, C., Mörtberg, E., & Lindefors, N. (2011). Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive-behavioral group therapy for a social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. PloS one, 6(3), e18001.

Heimberg, R. G. (2002). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for a social anxiety disorder: current status and future directions. Biological psychiatry, 51(1), 101-108.

Heimberg, R. G., & Turk, C. L. (2006).


Managing social anxiety: a cognitive-behavioral therapy approach: therapist guide. Oxford University Press.
Hope, D. A., Heimberg, R. G., & Juster, H. A. (2004). Managing social anxiety: A cognitive- behavioral therapy approach client workbook. Graywind Publications.

Inquiry, S., Epstein, R. M., & Legacy, G. E. S. (2004). The biopsychosocial model 25 years later. Ann Family Med, 2(6), 576-582.
Leichsenring, F., Salzer, S., Beutel, M. E., Herpertz, S., Hiller, W., Hoyer, J., ... & Leibing, E. Long-term outcome of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(10), 1074-1082.

Nordgreen, T., Gjestad, R., Andersson, G., Carlbring, P., & Havik, O. E. (2018). Internet interventions, 13, 24-29.
Norton, P. J., & Price, E. C. (2007). A meta-analytic review of adult cognitive-behavioral treatment outcome across the anxiety disorders. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 195(6), 521-531.

Pine, D., Rothbaum, B. O., & Ressler, K. (Eds.). (2015).


Primer on anxiety disorders: translational perspectives on diagnosis and treatment. Primer on.

Rodebaugh, T. L., Holaway, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (2004). The treatment of social anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(7), 883-908.
Stangier, U. (2016). New developments in cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. Current psychiatry reports, 18(3), 25.
Stein, M. B., & Stein, D. J. (2008). Social anxiety disorder. The Lancet, 371(9618), 1115-1125.

Wong, Q. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2016). The etiology and maintenance of social anxiety disorder: A synthesis of complementary theoretical models and formulation of a new integrated model. Journal of affective disorders, 203, 84-100.

Thurston, M. D., Goldin, P., Heimberg, R., & Gross, J. J. (2017). Self-views in social anxiety disorder: The impact of CBT versus MBSR. Journal of anxiety disorders, 47, 83-90.

社交焦虑症report代写

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