Report代写:完美撰题的八大原则_report代写


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标准一:掌握调查报告题型Understand the assignment

When a professor assigns a paper to a class, the implicit understanding is that a student will produce a paper in harmony with the assignment. The submitted paper may or may not be competently researched and well-written, but at the very least it is expected to be in the assigned area of research. Yet instructors still are disappointed to receive papers on, say, William Shakespeare's classic family tragedies when the assignment was on the Bard's sonnets.

专家教授分派汇报时,一般 预估学员的文章内容务必紧密结合工作主旨。不管学员缴费的文章内容是不是科学研究周全、创作幽美,至少务必合乎特定的研究领域。但是,假如专家教授分派的工作是沙士比亚的十四行诗,接到汇报却探讨他的經典家中不幸,这一份汇报還是达不上规范。

Researching and writing a paper that almost meets the assigned criteria isn't good enough. Professors are the experts in their disciplines and in their classrooms. They are familiar with the many facets of a subject. They intentionally assign papers on one slice of a broader subject in the expectation that students will examine that slice in some depth. When a student chooses to write on another facet of the subject, it not only is disappointing, it portends a failing grade.

科学研究与创作汇报不可以但求不尽如人意。专家教授是该课程的权威专家,也很掌握班里的学员。专家教授对一个主题风格的众多朝向知之甚详,假如有心从普遍的主题风格中特定一个朝向科学研究,表明期待学员深入分析此朝向。学员假如继而科学研究主题风格的另一个朝向,工作不仅达不上规范,考试成绩大约也不过关。

Sometimes the fault lies with a professor for not clearly laying out the assignment. Sometimes it is the student who fails to grasp an assignment and to question it. As Cool Hand Luke famously said, “What we've got here is a failure to communicate .” But ultimately it is the student who will suffer the most when such confusion occurs, so it is the student who must clear away the confusion before proceeding. Always know the assignment before beginning to fulfill it.

有时专家教授沒有把题型表述清晰,有时候则是学员沒有领悟题型,都没有问清晰,如同《铁窗喋血》电影中的经典对白:「大家沟通交流欠佳」。但归根结底,假如厘不清情况,遭罪的是学员,因此学员在逐渐写汇报前一定要先理清题型。记牢,逐渐开展编写前,尽量的确掌握工作题型。

标准二:确定调查报告的主题风格范畴Clearly identify the parameters of an assigned topic

This suggestion is closely related to the first one, which was to understand an assignment. But rather than dealing with miscommunication between student and instructor, this suggestion has to do with a writer's judgment. Case in point: A clear-thinking student in a culinary curriculum who is assigned an academic paper on tuna should ultimately conclude that a paper on the health benefits of tuna salad is more appropriate than a paper on the economics of tuna fishing.

上星期提及的标准一是掌握调查报告的题型,标准二与标准一相关,但并不是解决老师学生沟通交流欠佳,只是与创作者的分辨相关。举例来说,假如读烹制的学员要写一份与鲔鱼相关的学术研究文章内容,清晰思索后,应当了解相比探讨鲔鱼打捞的经济发展,更合适探讨鲔鱼水果沙拉对身心健康的益处。

Yet professors are regularly surprised by topical tangents. Students sometimes ending up fishing for good grades in strange and irrelevant places. Unfortunately for them, the result is a marked-down paper. This doesn't mean that instructors don't appreciate writers who bring fresh ideas and subjects to a topical mix. Willingness to stretch a topic is an indication of intellectual heft and confidence. But stretch a topic too far and usually it will collapse into irrelevancy.

即便如此,专家教授還是常常接到文不对题的汇报。一些学员想得到优异成绩,汇报內容却无缘无故又与主题风格揠苗助长,自然就拿不上优异成绩。专家教授并并不是不赏析学员在题型中融合新鮮的念头与主题风格,想要拓展题型呈现了学员的学术研究工作能力与信心;但若是拓展很远,通常由于跑题而写成不成功的文章内容。

A general guideline to follow in evaluating the relevancy of a subject is to work outward from the core. If the assigned topic is tuna, for example, a concentric line of reasoning might go like this: Tuna – Fresh / Canned – Properties of canned tuna in water / oil – Albacore vs. Pacific bluefin – Mercury vs. low fats – Protein content – Tuna hash vs. Grilled tuna – and so on. While the process can go on for some time, it should end well before Charlie the Tuna is considered.

评定主题风格是不是有关有一条细则,便是创作时从关键向外探寻。举例来说,假如题型是鲔鱼,思索论述的内切圆逻辑性应该是:鲔鱼-水果罐头或新鮮鲔鱼-清煮与油迹鲔鱼的特点-长鳍鲔鱼与中国太平洋蓝鳍鲔鱼-含汞量与低热量-蛋白质含量-鲔鱼土豆或煎烤鲔鱼…这些。各抒已见的明细能够拓宽下来,但假如探讨到鲔鱼罐头品牌的卡通吉祥物 Charlie the Tuna ,就表明你跑题很远啦。

标准三 注意躲藏在教材内容与别的地区的科学研究主题风格Be alert to potential topics in course material and elsewhere

Sometimes the perfect topic is perfectly hidden … right under your nose. When an assignment is given in a class, the tendency is to focus on the assignment as if it exists separate from the rest of your intellectual activity. Not true. Assignments do not occur in vacuums. They are part of what is going on around you in the class—and outside the class. All knowledge is part of the same intellectual continuum; the sooner this is understood, the fuller a learning experience becomes.

有时最赞的科学研究题型藏在最出乎意料的地区-就藏在你的眼底下。一般人常把专家教授出的工作和别的科学研究分离看来,却不知道工作并并不是独立存有。工作不但与课堂教学上的一切相关,也与课堂教学外的一切相关。全部大学问都归属于一个持续的知识结构,尽早搞清楚这一大道理,才可以让学过更加详细。

So the first place to begin a search for a topic is in the class material itself. Lectures. Textbooks. Laboratory or field experiences. Even conversations with classmates contain the seeds of ideas. This might seem to be a superfluous suggestion, yet too many students turn off their minds when the class bell rings, or a formal discussion period ends. Learning to listen engagingly at unstructured times and to critically explore material in depth will help the topic search.

因而,最先能够从课堂教学教材内容找寻科学研究主题风格,不论是讲课內容、教材、试验或研究过程都能再加探寻,班里同学们的会话探讨也很有可能变成设计灵感来源于。这一提议听起来也许有点儿不必要,但很多学员通常下课铃一响,宣布探讨時间一完毕,就把科学研究思绪关起來。假如能学好在平日就积极主动倾听,用心、深层次探寻教学内容,对找寻科学研究题型一定帮助甚多。

The other great place to look for topical revelation is in wholly unrelated reading material. Almost regardless of how specialized a research assignment is, valuable insight can be gleaned from general circulation publications. Sometimes a popular writer's approach to a completely different subject can suggest a new academic approach. Or a word might jump out that sparks fresh thinking. The world is awash with ideas. Splash around in it and see what you can find.

与科学研究不相干的读本是另一个找寻科学研究题型的好去处;无论研究领域多专业,基本上都能够在一般读本里寻获珍贵的洞悉。有时候发觉热销文学家解决彻底不一样行为主体的方式,可从而有助于找到新的科学研究方式;有时候某一语汇忽然蹦出来,也可以激起新鮮的念头。世界上弥漫着各种各样的念头,探索宇宙,你一定能有一定的获得。

标准四 维持胸怀对外开放 Keep an open mind

This suggestion really shouldn't be necessary. An open mind should be a chief characteristic of any writer laboring in the academic field. The whole purpose of academia is to learn and, in the learning, to expand the body of knowledge that undergirds understanding and progress. Learning is stifled by barriers to learning; the most insidious of these is the closed mind. So in searching for a research topic, an academic writer should be open to virtually all possibilities.

胸怀对外开放是学术研究行业创作者需有的基础特性,原本无须尤其明确提出。科学研究便是为了更好地学习培训,并在学习过程中拓展总体见识、提高了解与促进发展。阻拦学习培训的要素许多 ,在其中最隐而不显的阻碍便是传统封闭式的观念。因此学术研究创作者找寻科学研究主题风格时,应当对全部很有可能维持对外开放。

One of the indicators of openness is the capacity for surprise. When a mind is partly or entirely shuttered, it is less receptive to peripheral flashes of insight. It is so focused on a preconceived agenda that it simply doesn't sense glancing inspiration. A writer open to inspiration is more apt to be startled by a new thought, which might enter his mind through an unrelated conversation. Such revelations are the direct result of a person's willingness to be surprised.

对外开放的观念有项指标值,便是能感悟到出人意表之处。假如因循守旧或彻底封闭式,即便隐隐约约有一定的感悟,也难以好好地掌握。太固执于预订的流程,脑海中里就沒有室内空间容下稍纵即逝的金光。创作时若能敞开式胸怀、相拥设计灵感,就更非常容易受新发展理念启迪,从不相干的会话中采颉新的观点。想要接受奇特的念头,就能立即获益。

The rest of the story is how a surprising idea is handled. A closed-minded person dismisses such an idea because it disrupts his ordered mindset. An open-minded person muses upon it. Explores it. Evaluates it. Weighs it. Only then might the person drop the idea because it is found to be wanting or, better yet, to abandon it in favor of yet another idea spawned by the first one. The beauty of openness is that it is expansive in nature. Growth and learning are the natural results.

除开发觉奇特的念头,也要了解怎样应用。心理状态传统的人对新的念头不屑一顾,担心这类念头会搅乱她们循规蹈矩的思索方法。心理状态贤明的人则会全身心刻苦钻研,探寻、评定、衡量新的念头,分辨这一念头是不是有一定的不够,再将之学会放下;或者从这当中衍化另一个新的观念,因此抛下原来的念头,这类状况更理想化。对外开放的心理状态自身辽阔,当然有利于学习培训与发展。

标准五 分辨主题风格的深层和深度广度 Determine the depth and breadth of a possible topic

This suggestion might seem to put an extra burden on a writer, but the opposite is the case. Nothing is more difficult than to write in depth on a topic that is shallow. Nothing is more challenging than to write substantively about a subject that is transparently simplistic. In such cases, writers resort to setting up straw arguments, belaboring the obvious, and larding the paper with adjectives, adverbs, general wordiness, and sometimes the kitchen sink and cabinetry.

这一提议听起来好像让创作者又多了一份压力,殊不知事实上恰好反过来。创作调查报告时,最艰难的莫过详细分析一个浅薄的主题风格,最痛楚的莫过严肃认真探讨一个简易但是的题型。假如坚持那么做,只有言不及义、满纸空谈,东加一个修饰词、西添一个介词,文章内容大多数冗杂裂缝,乃至零碎平凡。

Know thy topic—but not too quickly. If a writer can instantly see how to proceed with writing about a possible topic, the topic probably is too facile to seriously consider. Genuinely complex topics for a paper are not that transparent. They are too deep to have their bottoms seen. They hide undercurrents of information that only can be discovered by diving into them. On the other hand, sometimes they are too deep for a paper. Discerning a topic's depth is important.

创作要掌握主题风格,但不必急切一时。假如能马上看得出主题风格的创作方位,表明此主题风格很有可能太为粗浅,不值深层次研究。真实繁杂、合适写调查报告的题型一般 没法随便看穿,其内函高深莫测,仅有深层次研究才可以发觉在其中蕴涵的信息。殊不知,有时主题风格却太过难懂,不宜写调查报告。因而分辨主题风格的深层是十分关键的。

The other important dimension to consider is breadth. A topic worth writing about should have wide enough application to have value beyond whatever grade is earned by its writer. For example, the pin oak tree might be too narrow a biological topic unless one incorporates the tree's migration to Australia. On the other hand, as with depth, a topic can be too broad to be addressed in a paper. A thorough survey of depth and breadth is key in any topic selection.

除此之外也应考虑题型的深度广度,非常值得讨论的题型应当能普遍应用,除开能够让创作者取得成绩,应当也有别的使用价值。比如,单纯性以针栎树为主题风格范畴很有可能太狭小,但能够将探讨融合针栎树怎样迁移到澳大利亚。除此之外,如同题型很有可能太难懂,一样也很有可能太普遍而不宜写调查报告。挑选主题风格前,谨记完全掌握题型的深层与深度广度。

标准六 务求主题风格自主创新Strive for originality in a topic

The old saying is that there is nothing new under the sun. Even sayings are old. It is true that the first writer of an academic paper could choose from a longer list of unwritten-about topics than is possible to find today. Consequently, a search now for an original topic is much longer. In fact, a wholly original subject might not exist, depending upon the discipline. Still, enough nuances do exist to allow today's writers to bring fresh perspective to a topic, and that is sufficient.

俗话说得好,阳光底下沒有新鲜事儿,但是这种老话都不新鮮了。的确,相比如今的学者,前期的学者有大量从没科学研究过的题型能够挑选,因而如今想找寻自主创新的题型,务必花更长的時间,一些学门乃至很有可能彻底欠缺原創的题型。但是,题型间還是一些微小的差别,能够让如今的学者为主题风格产生创意,而那样就充足了。

The first rule in the search for an original topic is that a writer must want to find one. While a student's willingness to tiresomely revisit a tired subject will satisfy an assignment, it will not land the student a grade in the upper echelon of scores. Those are reserved for fresh thinkers. So in considering a topic, examine it from the standpoint of (1) how often it has been addressed and (2) how much fresh insight is possible this time around. If it fails this freshness test, drop it.

找寻原創主题风格的第一准则,便是你要想要去找。学员做作业时,假如不辞劳苦地探讨一个老掉牙的题型,也许能够交叉,但成绩大约不容易太高。仅有念头新奇,才可以取得优异成绩。因此思索题型时,能够从2个见解来检测:第一,这一题型是不是经常探讨?第二,此次探讨是不是可带出新奇的看法?假如从这一趣味测试里,发觉题型没什么创意,那麼最好是舍弃。

Selection of a topic gives a professor a glimpse of the character of a student. Academic writers are first of all academic thinkers whose brains are attuned to challenge, discovery, and the search for information that expands the common base of knowledge. Any student unwilling to put real effort into this process is only loitering in the academic realm, rather than establishing himself there. A serious search for original material is one of the defining markers of a serious student.

专家教授从学员选的题型里,能够大约掌握学员的个性化。学术研究学者的思索会主要表现出学术研究特性,喜好挑戰、追求完美探索与发现、热衷找寻新闻资讯以拓展专业知识的基本。不肯真实资金投入这一全过程的学员,仅仅在学术圈胡混,不容易有所建树。认真细致地找寻原創题型的原材料,才算是用心学员的真实写照。

标准七 英勇探寻课程的边沿行业Don’t be afraid to explore the edge of a subject

As in the previous guideline about an original topic, this suggestion is about how to make a paper distinctive from hundreds of similar papers. The recommendation is to look toward the edges of a subject where previous researchers have been reluctant to explore. After all, while plowing the same ground sometimes turns up new topical material, an aspiring researcher is very likely to find fresher, more compelling information by turning over rocks on the edge of the field.

此项准则相近前一项「务求主题风格自主创新」准则,都能让毕业论文从数百篇相近的文章内容中出类拔萃,而方式便是关心课程的边沿行业,探寻以往学者没加研究的主题风格。在同一块行业刻苦钻研,也许有时候能发觉新的主题风格,可是若学者填满理想,在边沿行业锲而不舍地辛勤耕耘,也许能发觉更新鮮、更有感染力的新闻资讯。

Working the edges of a subject doesn't lessen the value of a paper. Content is king regardless of where it is found. Relevancy is not related to how central a topic is, but how it contributes to the overall understanding of a subject. For example, everyone might know that a minor emperor was a stout man, yet no one know that he secretly wore a padded cummerbund to enhance his girth, believing it befit his rank. Such revelation can introduce new psychological perspective.

毕业论文的使用价值不容易由于主题风格较边沿而降低,由于无论材料从哪里发觉,內容才算是关键。毕业论文的使用价值不相干主题风格是不是为课程重心点,关键是可否推动掌握总体课程。比如,大部分人都知道minor emperor是没有知名度的君主,即便他会背地里佩戴有填充料的窄脚裤提升臀围,想借此机会与他的影响力相映,大家都不感觉关键或非常值得研究。实际上,像这种大家嘴中说白了的「琐事」,若深层次去科学研究,反倒或许能寻找尤其的探索与发现,针对社会心理学学者来讲,那样的发觉也许还有机会引进新的社会心理学见解。

Looking to the edge of a subject for new topical material is not the same as being edgy, though being edgy is OK. Edgy might be defined as flirting with irrelevancy by looking “way out there” for a topic. The key is not to drift so far from a core subject that one loses sight of an assignment. Professors are not amused by such independence. Nevertheless, one should feel free to explore the entire range of a subject, hither and yon, with an open mind about what you discover yon .

探寻课程的边沿行业,找寻新的主题风格,不意味着便是心浮气躁,尽管心浮气躁也没有什么不太好。另一方面,心浮气躁也可以说是找寻主题风格时「扯很远」,沒有深思熟虑主题风格是不是适度性。关键是把握恰当,勿过多偏移课程关键,造成 没法把握工作中心思想。专家教授不容易对你有感觉跑题很远的。殊不知,你還是能够随意探寻全部课程范畴,无需限制,并且用对外开放的心理状态对待彼处的发觉。

标准八 找寻回味无穷、有启迪力的题型Find a topic that is intriguing or can teach

In choosing a research paper topic, a writer should make a genuine effort to find one that forces him to learn something. This rule is a tough one for someone who already knows it all. For the rest of us, it applies. A familiar topic not only is more likely to have been beaten to death by previous writers, it is apt to produce nothing new. Whereas an intriguing topic will spur a curious researcher to dig, and the writer's evident conviction will come through in the paper.

挑选科学研究毕业论文题目时,应当极力找寻能给你从这当中学习培训的题型。这条标准针对已对主题风格知之甚详的人而言不易,却很合适别人。普遍的题型很有可能早已由先人完全探讨过,也不易有创意,而回味无穷的题型能迫使富好奇心的学者深层次探寻,在整篇文章毕业论文中清晰呈现科学研究信心。

Obviously, a writer can be too ambitious. Even when preliminary research indicates a plethora of sources are available on a topic of genuine interest, the time allowed to plumb them all might be too short. Or the complexity of a multi-layered topic might preclude handling the topic in a single paper. So finding a possible topic to be interesting is only good to a point; it also must be a topic that is suitable for encapsulating in a research paper of finite length.

自然,学者也很有可能欲望太高。即便基本科学研究显示信息你很感兴趣的题型有比较丰富的材料,也很有可能時间不够,没法一一研究;也很有可能题型层级丰富多彩,比较繁杂,没法在每篇毕业论文中探讨清晰。因此题型除开趣味,也务必合适在篇数比较有限的毕业论文中探讨。

In short, daring to delve into unfamiliar territory is a test of one's desire to produce a paper of worth. It is an indicator of the mindset of an academic writer. Unwillingness to explore and to risk failure in a quest for learning suggests that a writer is a poseur. The cachet of scholarship and academia—and, of course, the incredible benefit of knowledge—is enviable, but the prestige comes from hard work and exemplary conviction. In other words, the title “scholar” is earned.

简而言之,敢于刻苦钻研不了解的行业,能够磨练一个人是不是确实想写成有使用价值的毕业论文,呈现专家学者的气概。在求真全过程中,不愿意全身心刻苦钻研、承受不成功,表明学者不过是惺惺作态。在大家艳羡专家学者的知名度,及专业知识的无穷益处时,别忘记这种声望来源于勤恳伤仲永,及其足为楷模的科学研究进取之心。可以说,专家学者的称号是拼搏的果子。

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