HR作业代写  Instrumental leadership is used when the leaders require the employees to achieve goals quickly. This is because it pulls different

Leadership theories  HR作业代写

Leaders are the mirrors of the organization. They are obligated to scan both the organization's internal and external environment, set task objectives, chart strategies, and provide performance reports. Various leadership theories include instrumental leadership, transformational, and transactional (Hickman & Akdere, 2018). While leadership theories might be similar, they are exercised in different manners. This paper will provide a critical analysis of transformation, transactional and instrumental leadership; these include their differences, pro and cons and when and why they are used.

Transformational leadership

Transformation leadership can be defined as a theory where the leaders work closely with their teams or followers. Leaders often go beyond the employee's self-interest to identify the organization's crises and changes, develop visions for changes through motivation inspirations, and implement changes with identified employees. Transformational leadership based on self-interest is elevated employee's concern for performance and profitability and employee's maturity and ideals.


According to Lowe et al. (1996), transformational leaders motivate employees and inspire them to perform beyond their abilities and qualifications.  HR作业代写

Also, transformational leaders motivate followers to go beyond the limits and achieve unexpected results in the organization. Antonakis & House (2014) highlight that transformational leadership enables the followers to develop autonomy based on a specific type of work; this gives them authority to make any decision that only relates to organizational performance and profitability. The leader perceived as transformation is identified through the four I's, including idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation and individualized consideration.

Transformation leadership is centered on employee well-being, including the mental ability. According to Antonakis & House (2014), transformational leaders promote motivation, job performances, and morale. This is done through a mix up of different mechanisms, which includes connection of employee's sense of identity with the project, role modeling, challenging employees to take ownership of their work and understanding the employee strength and weaknesses, thus allowing the followers to do what is best for them and developing their weakness.  HR作业代写

Strength and weakness of transformational leadership  


Reduces Turnover Costs: High turnover cost is characterized as time-consuming, reduce productivity and create a cultural impact. Transformation leadership makes the employees engaged and included in the organization's operations (Antonakis & House, 2014). Also, they express charisma which makes the employees feel valued and respected.

Encourages changes: Transformational leadership style helps people adapt, improve and expand over time, thus introducing new visions(Antonakis & House, 2014). It induces changes and improvement of the organization's status.  HR作业代写


Big picture focus: Transformational leadership styles overlook details and focus on the big picture (Antonakis & House, 2014). The avoidances of the administrative work led to misuse of the protocols.

When and why to use transformational leadership

Transformational leadership is used when employees need motivation and inspiration. This is because transformational leadership links the employee sense and the organization's identity. Thus, helping them develop the business's identity (Antonakis & House, 2014). Also, transformational leadership inspires and motivates employees to scum any forces and pressure of work. This shows the employee's capabilities and increases their ability to achieve unexpected results.


Transactional leadership  HR作业代写

Unlike transformation leadership, transactional leadership is based on supervision, organization, and monitoring of employee performance. While transformational leadership is based on motivation, transactional leadership is related to the promotion of employee's compliances through punishment and reward. The use of the reward and punishment system by transactional leaders is short-term related, unlike transformational leadership, which aims to change the organization's future. According to Antonakis & House (2014), transactional leaders are centered on processes and not forward growth ideas.

Strength and weakness


It creates fairness: Transactional leadership rewards employees based on the merits and not the management's opinions (Lowe et al., 1996). This reduces the chances of favoritism which may lead to dissatisfaction of the employees.

Easy to understand:  Transactional leadership reward and punishment system is easy to understand and does not require interpretation like transformation leadership. According to Lowe et al. (1996), the employees know what to do to be rewarded and what not to do.

Weakness  HR作业代写

Discourages creativity: Unlike transformation leadership, transactional leadership punishes its employees for not achieving the set goals (Lowe et al., 1996). This does not allow employees to come up with what may shape the organization's future.

When and why to use

Transactional leadership is effective during crises and emergencies, including when the project needs to be achieved in a specific way. This is because transactional leadership expects the employee to behave in a specific way by following developed details or guidelines (Lowe et al., 1996). Also, transactional theory sets rewards that are only provided when a certain project limit is reached. Its strictness makes it possible to use it in times of crisis, including financial and marketing crises.

 Instrumental leadership

Instrumental leadership ensures organizational goals are achieved through management and understanding the external and internal environment. Antonakis & House (2014) highlight that instrumental leaders provide feedback to their employees to help promote their performances. This is different from transactional leadership, which does not give followers feedback or guidelines. Also, while transactional leaders focus on individual performance and transformation on the big picture, instrumental leadership combines both models. Unlike transformation leadership, instrumental leadership requires all employees to move in the same direction.

Strength and weakness


Increases productivity: Leaders always simplify the tasks and delegate; this is done through instructions and guidelines provided by the leaders (Lowe et al., 1996). Also, this minimizes failure as the leaders work as guiders to the employee.

Clear communication: Instrumental leaders are always direct to their employees (Lowe et al., 1996). During delegating tasks, the leaders usually provide expectations, including deadlines, quality, and specifications.

Weakness    HR作业代写

Takes time to address every employee problem: Employees has different challenges and weakness; this might take a lot for the instrumental leaders. Antonakis & House (2014) highlights that instrumental leaders, through their engagement in tasks with employees, may be required to settle employee's gaps with tasks.

When and why it is used

Instrumental leadership is used when the leaders require the employees to achieve goals quickly. This is because it pulls different employees together and promotes them through internal and external environments (Lowe et al., 1996). Also, instrumental leadership's ability to provide feedback to its employees makes it eligible to achieve short-term goals.

In conclusion, different types of leadership theory have different uses. These are defined by the theories advantages and disadvantages. This paper has critically analyzed transformational, transactional and instrumental leadership theory. Based on different research, transformational leaders work closely with their followers and help connect the employee's identity with tasks. On the other hand, transactional leadership is based on a punishment-reward mechanism where those who fail to achieve are punished, and those who do well are rewarded. On the other hand, instrumental leadership combines both transformational and transactional leadership attributes.


References HR作业代写

Antonakis, J. and House, R.J., 2014. Instrumental leadership: Measurement and extension of transformational–transactional leadership theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(4), pp.746-771.

Lowe, K.B., Kroeck, K.G. and Sivasubramaniam, N., 1996. Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. The leadership quarterly, 7(3), pp.385-425.


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