Essay代写:如何用好幽默守则?_essay代写


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1st Humor Guideline – Use it Carefully 风趣准则第一条-风趣要当心应用

One of the rules laid out for writers of serious papers is… don't try to be funny. There is wisdom in such counsel. It indeed is wise not to try to be funny. Every comedian who has died on stage when his humor falls flat can attest that nothing is more painful than failing to connect with an audience. Academic writers often present their material to an audience of one, who grades the material even more mercilessly than a nightclub crowd. So, yes, if humor is not your forte , don't try to force it on your professor. But if you do have talent for turning an amusing phrase, use it.

创作严肃认真文章内容有一条清晰的要求-不必装作幽默。这条告诫是有些道理的,装作幽默的确不聪慧。喜剧明星假如以前由于风趣失效在台子上难堪不己,都能够对你说,最反感的莫过和观众们丧失沟通交流。期刊论文的观众们仅有一位,并且评价起來比喜剧片观众们更不留情。因此,假如风趣不是你的优势,不必硬塞给专家教授,但假如你确实善于创作幽默搞笑的文本,就虽然写吧。

Nearly every person—of course, some don't have a clue—knows whether he is amusing in his expression. Yet even those who have such talent don't always employ it effectively. They joke too much, and too much of any good thing usually is bad. They try to amuse people at inappropriate times, when solemnity clearly is preferred. They perhaps get too raw in their jesting or become slapstick in their delivery. Scholarly writers certainly will not impress anyone with any of the above. So, as much thought should be given to the context of humor as to the humor itself.

基本上每一个人都了解自身的表述是不是幽默(自然便是有的人会搞不懂),但有幽默风趣的人也不是每一次都能挥洒自如,她们很有可能开过多玩笑话,而一切好事情一旦过度通常就变成错事。她们想哄女孩笑的机会不对,有时候显而易见严肃认真正儿八经比较好。有时候她们也很有可能把玩笑话开的太低俗或变为一场风波。创作学术研究文章内容假如犯了所述问题,就肯定写出不来经典作品。因此除开风趣自身务必细心设计构思,应用风趣的场所还要好好思考。

Knowing when to inject an amusing comment is even more delicate in academic writing than in show biz. That's because the goal is not to amuse per se but to communicate a larger point. If a humorous expression distracts a reader from a thread of thought, it is detracting from the paper rather than contributing to its success. Therefore, in a paper as in every other venue, timing is important. A light comment should slip into the flow of thought as naturally as any other element of the writing and for the same reason: to move the reader toward a desired conclusion.

相比喜剧片演出,创作学术研究文章内容时更难把握落笔风趣的适度机会,由于学术研究文章内容的服务宗旨并不是取悦阅读者,只是沟通交流关键的见解。假如风趣会分散化阅读者对文章内容多元性的专注力,那么就对毕业论文有利有弊。因而,写毕业论文时假如要应用风趣,一如在别的场所应用风趣一样,机会最重要。风趣妙语如同别的的写作方法,务必顺着文章内容理路当然融进,由于他们的目地全是要说动阅读者接纳文章内容的结果。

2nd Humor Guideline – Use it Seriously 风趣准则第二条-风趣要谨慎应用

Have you heard the one about the funnyman who became a surgeon? He left his patients in stitches. This joke might be amusing if the hearer of it is familiar with the colloquial phrase “in stitches,” which means laughing uncontrollably. If the phrase is unfamiliar, the stab at humor is only puzzling—and puzzlement is never a strength in an academic paper. Therefore, any writer making a comic allusion should be sure that the language of the humor is universal, or at least is in the vernacular of a grading professor. Puzzling humor is worse than leaden use of words.

你听过一个笑话吗?有一个喜剧明星当上外科医师,結果患者都高兴得阖不拢嘴(译注:这一嘲笑用了双关,全文He left his patients in stitches,stitches 有缝合线的含意,「in stitches」指高兴得根本停不下来)。假如听的人了解英语口语词「in stitches」是令人搞笑不止的意思,那这一嘲笑就很好笑。假如听的人不清楚,便会不明白本来的风趣,而不明白肯定谈不上期刊论文的优势。因而,创作时假如要做风趣的形容,要明确这类表述一般人都能看懂,或最少用的英语口语,打分数专家教授能看懂。不明白的风趣,比低沉的表述还槽糕。

More to the point, the insertion of a humorous aside or reflection always should help drive a narrative forward. It should help build momentum and add to a logical string. If it does none of that, it is doing the opposite—it is slowing and frustrating a reader. When a writer senses that his message is not crisp and lively, and chooses to be humorous in an effort to give it some “zip,” he has chosen unwisely. Reworking an entire body of writing to enliven it is always the best choice. Only if resorting to humor genuinely energizes a paper and advances a message is it acceptable.

更关键的是,交叉风趣的题外话或建议时,一定要能提升描述、造成机械能,并提高逻辑性。假如一项都做不到,便会导致反实际效果,令人读得慢且填满挫败。假如创作者发觉內容不足栩栩如生强有力,决策应用风趣技法好给文章内容一点魅力,这一决策实际上不太聪明。最好是的挑选应该是调用全篇文章,让文章内容更有发火。风趣务必能另外让文章内容更栩栩如生,而且能拓张文章内容要义。

Because humor has, by definition, a comic side, it must be used purposefully. Scholars are purposeful in their scholarship, all learning being a serious and gratifying undertaking. It is, in a phrase, no joking matter. Consequently, any humor that comes across as levity, or frivolous, is out of character with scholarly writing. Therefore, any writer who uses all proven communication techniques—including humor—indeed runs the risk of failing. However, if he succeeds, his reward is peer and professorial recognition as a disciplined, powerful communicator.

由于风趣原本就会有搞笑搞笑的一面,因此应用时务必慎重考虑。专家学者刻苦钻研大学问是很谨慎的,治学是件用心且有获得的工作中,简易而言,并不是件玩笑的事。因而,风趣假如给人随意或轻佻的印像,就不宜学术专著。创作时应用风趣等各种各样有效沟通方法,确实有可能不成功。但是假如成功了,就能呈现熟练强有力的沟通协调能力,受同侪和教授赞叹。

3rd Humor Guideline – Use it Sparingly 风趣准则第三条-风趣要控制应用

Humor in an academic paper is rare because it is virtually proscribed. Beginning writers are advised—make that… strictly warned—not to employ humor for the sensible reason that it is a difficult communication technique. Consequently, many beginning writers mature without ever having used an amusing aside or light touch. They simply do not use humor. That's regrettable. Those willing to employ humor in a paper—in such light sprinklings that they almost honor the prohibition—can earn the respect of professors for communicating clearly and engagingly.

学术研究文章内容基本上不能应用风趣,因而非常少见到风趣。初学者创作者都听过这一提议-应当说成严苛的劝诫-不必应用风趣,由于风趣是个艰难的沟通的技巧。这一原因很有效。因而很多初学者创作者在磨炼发展中,从不曾在文章内容里交叉幽默或轻轻松松风趣的文本,彻底和风趣拉开距离,确实很遗憾。对于想要在毕业论文里应用幽默的人, 虽然仅仅一笑了之,仿佛也愿意不应该用风趣一样,但却由于思路清晰观点鲜明栩栩如生而能得到专家教授亲睐。

Here's an example: In describing the reaction of a laboratory rodent, a writer might straight-forwardly observe, “The mouse smelled the tainted sugar, its nose reacting to the injected block, and returned to its cage.” That is a serviceable statement, but this is better: “The mouse sniffed at the sugar cube, sneezed, and turned tail on the treat.” Nothing in this recounting of the lab experience is frivolous, funny as such, or distracting. Yet the reader is given a gently arresting image that has the power to tease out a smile… that of a scampering, sneezing, retreating mouse.

举例来说,叙述试验室里耗子的个人行为时能够以偏概全:「耗子闻了投药的糖,鼻部对引入药品的方糖起反映,随后返回笼内」。这一段叙述还能够,但比不上下边这一段:「耗子嗅了嗅方糖,打个打喷嚏,选择离开」。这一段叙述彻底不轻佻、搞笑,也不会分散化注意力训练,但意境能吸引住阅读者,展现出一只跑跑跳跳、打喷涕、回身走掉的耗子,令人捧腹大笑。

A less disciplined writer might have gone overboard and written…”The mouse seemed to suspect the sugar contained a mickey, turned, and ran back to Minnie.” While this allusion to Disney characters Mickey and Minnie Mouse is cutely apt—a “mickey” is a secretly drugged drink or food—it tries too hard to incorporate them. The result is a tangent for a reader, a detour rather than continued forward movement of a narrative. Humor should not be used often, and never employed with a heavy hand , because the result is neither funny nor effective.

假如创作者不足认真细致,很有可能会写的太过分:「耗子好像猜疑糖里藏了米奇米妮,回身,跑向米妮。」这一迪士尼卡通米奇米妮鼠的譬喻虽然讨人喜欢又机敏,由于「米奇米妮」(mickey)也指悄悄下了药的食材饮品,但用在这儿却斧凿过深,結果让阅读者走神,影响描述并非让描述更顺畅。风趣不应该用到太经常,并且决不能太过分,不然读起來既不趣味也充分发挥不上功效。

4th Humor Guideline – Use it Surprisingly 风趣准则第四条-风趣要出人意表

Comedians or naturally humorous people in social conversation are entertaining because they surprise listeners with something they say. When the mind is expecting to hear one thing and unexpectedly hears something else, it reacts. Researchers who explore how the brain reacts to unexpected stimuli affirm what lay observers already know to be true: Surprise stimulates learning by arousing the brain and drawing attention to a stimulus. Because humor surprises, academic writers should not forfeit it as a tool in stimulating and connecting with readers.

喜剧明星或有风趣天赋的人平时闲聊时很趣味,由于有人说得话令人出乎意料。假如内心本来预估听见某事,但出现意外地听见另一件事,便会出现反映。一些科学研究工作人员探寻人的大脑怎样对出乎意料的刺激性反映,确认一般人都观查到的客观事实:出现意外能激起人的大脑留意刺激性,可推动学习培训。风趣令人出乎意料,因而创作学术研究文章内容时,不可抵触用风趣来刺激性阅读者、和阅读者沟通交流。

On the other hand, people who reach for humor all the time in their communication injure their cause: They they accomplish just the opposite: They become too predictable. Surprise and predictability are communication opposites. When listeners or readers suspect that a punch line or a humorous twist is coming, they wait for it like vultures, ready to devour it if it isn't lively. In the same way, academic writers who regularly inject humor set up themselves for failure. So, surprise readers. Deftly inject some well- chosen, amusing words at critical moments and win them over.

殊不知,有的人沟通交流时时时刻刻都想主要表现风趣,反倒会防碍沟通交流、得不偿失,由于她们的个人行为太非常容易意料了。沟通交流时,「出人意表」和「略见一斑」功效恰好反过来,观众或阅读者假如感觉下面会出現风趣爆笑段子或幽默转折点,便会像秃鹰一样等待,假如风趣不足开朗便会遭受吞食。一样的,写学术研究文章内容一再固定不动主要表现风趣,那便是在自寻烦恼。因此要出乎意料,在紧要关头恰当地添加一两句用心选择、幽默风趣得话,那样就能驯服阅读者的心。

A professor or academic adviser will react appropriately to an amusing aside—that is, he will instantly become more engaged and more comfortable with the writer. This will happen if the surprise gently lifts his spirits, doesn't detract from the point being made, and merges seamlessly with the sentences immediately preceding and following. The humor should seem to be natural expression and be thoroughly integrated into the serous flow of the paper. When this happens, a reader will be moved by the engaging sentence without pausing to consider just what moved him.

专家教授或指导教授读到交叉的嘲笑会出现适度的反映,读起文章内容迅速会更为资金投入、更轻松自在。要有这类实际效果,风趣务必意想不到、让人精神实质一振,也不会迁移阅读者对见解的专注力,并和前后文结合得无懈可击。风趣要表述地当然,并完全融合文章内容的迈向多元性。如此一来,阅读者会受栩栩如生的文句触动,但不容易慢下来思考触动他的是啥。

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