Essay代写修改:冠词省略为什么容易出错?_essay代写


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作为技术专业译员与编写,很多年来为许多英语非汉语人员改动与润饰文章内容,发现中国人从业英文写作常常犯的不正确,取决于掉入汉语的英语的语法圈套中、或者潜意识遭受汉语危害而应用不应该用的用语,导致词不达意而没法精准地用英文的句构逻辑性连结起来,但也很有可能仅是针对英语语法结构的不了解而致。

本次发布的新栏目期待能领着阅读者发觉常见的英文创作圈套,并防止将这种缪误带到文章内容之中。新栏目并不是在教育语法标准,只是明确提出一些见解,提成作者怎样提升英文写作风格与文本感染力。

As an editor and translator with years of experience in correcting English written by non-native speakers, I have come across certain areas that seem to be major pitfalls for Chinese speakers when writing in English. These mistakes are usually the writer's Chinese grammar or diction unconsciously coming out in their English exposition, or perhaps simply a unfamiliarity with English composition at its higher levels. 

This monthly column can teach you to spot these common writing pitfalls and thus avoid having them find their way into your English composition. It will not be a list of grammar rules to follow, but instead a look into how we can improve the style and force of our English writing.

Today we are going to discuss a small, but frequent problem that ESL learners exhibit when writing in English: the omission or misuse of articles.

今日我们要探讨一个英语非汉语学生在创作时普遍的小问题:冠词省去与误用。

First off, let’s do a quick review on articles. English has two articles:

最先,来做一个迅速检查。英语有二种冠词:

  • ‘the’—the definite article 第一种是定冠词「哪个(the)」。

  • ‘a/an’—the indefinite article. 第二种是不定冠词「一个(a/an)」。

There is almost no easier way to make your English sound foreign or “non-native” than to misuse articles in speech or writing. Unfortunately, for many Chinese speakers, articles are not only often omitted, but at times mixed up, or used when they are not required.

当您在说英语或英文写作时出現冠词误用的情况,非常容易一不小心表露出您是老外或者英文「非汉语」人员。悲剧的是,很多中国人在应用上不但常常将冠词省去,并且有时互用或应用机会有误。

So what is the difference between the definite article and indefinite article?

那麼,定冠词与不定冠词中间的差别为什么?

One simple definition would be: A definite article is used in front of specific nouns, while the indefinite article is used to modify general, non-specific nouns.

一个简易的界定是:定冠词用以特殊专有名词以前,不定冠词则用以装饰一般、非特殊专有名词。

So, for example, if I say “I want the book for Christmas” the definite article ‘the’ points to the fact that I want a very specific book.

因此,举例说明来讲,如果是这样「我要那本圣诞的书」,在其中定冠词「the」喻指我要「那本」特殊的书本。

But if I say “I want a car for Christmas” the use of the indefinite article means that I am not asking for a specific car, in fact, any car will do.

但如果是这样「我要一台用以圣诞的车」,此句应用不定冠词代表着,也没有规定某辆特殊的车,只是一切一辆车都能够。

However, if the person I was talking to referred back to that same car, he would use the definite article since he would be talking about a very specific car (i.e. the car that I want for Christmas) and one that I had mentioned previously.

殊不知,若跟我对谈的这个人提及前句我常说的那辆车,他必须应用定冠词,由于他就是指一辆特殊的车(亦即上述情况所说那辆我要用以圣诞的车)。

Therefore, we can also understand the use of the definite and indefinite article by looking at the overall context of the sentence(s). For example, the indefinite article is often used to introduce new information, or something that is unfamiliar to the listener/ reader:

因而,大家还可以通过了解语句前后文的方法,来决策应应用定冠词或不定冠词。比如,不定冠词常见于详细介绍新的新闻资讯,或者一些观众或阅读者不了解的事情。

1,I saw a car yesterday. 昨日看见了一辆车。

2,Tomorrow a plumber is going to come over. 明日有一位自来水管职工会回来一趟。

(In both cases, the speaker or writer is introducing something new to the listener/reader.)

(在这里二种状况下,讲话者或者作者都会详细介绍新的事情给观众或阅读者。)

Using the definite article, however, we are signaling that the listener/reader probably knows what we are referring to; either because it is common knowledge, or because it is something we have mentioned previously:

殊不知,当应用定冠词的情况下,观众或阅读者也许了解大家所说涉的事情;由于那时一般基本常识,或者大家先前提条件过的事儿。

1,I saw a car yesterday. It reminded me of the car that you said you wanted for your birthday.

昨日看见了一辆车。那使我回想到你觉得过你生日时要想的那车。

2,Tomorrow the plumber is going to come over.(Perhaps reminding the speaker of something that both parties were already aware of)

明日这位自来水管职工会回来一趟。 (也许讲话者与被提示者都早已了解这件事情。)

There are also dozens of rules regarding where you can or can not use the definite article. Confused yet? Don’t worry, articles and their use are confusing for even native speakers, but with a little practice you can get the general rules down.

有关定冠词应用机会的标准有许多条。您疑惑了没有?别担心,就连英文汉语人员也不一定所有都用到恰当,可是您能够经过一些训练把握基本准则。

Let’s now take a look at some sentences written by non-native English speakers and see where they went wrong.

如今使我们看一下下列由英文非汉语人员写出的语句,并找到定冠词应用不正确的地区。

Problem: Missing ‘the’

情况:少了「哪个(the)」

1,Back then, a volunteer of (the) local chapter started recruiting members at a local supermarket.

那时候,(哪个)地区联合会的志工逐渐在本地的百货商店征募组员。

2,Volunteers from Tokyo mobilized to visit (the) rescue centers and hospitals where (the) victims were sent.

日本东京的志工鼓励起來前去(这些)援救管理中心和医院门诊,去看望(这些)受害人。

3,The movement has also united people from different faiths to work together on behalf of (the) survivors.

这次健身运动也融合了不一样信念的人,为(这些)生还者团结一心,齐心合力一起工作中。

Problem: ‘a’ mistakenly used in place of ‘the’

情况:在应当应用「哪个(the)」的地区却用了「一个(a)」

1,Despite the makeshift operation room, the doctors conducted a (the) surgery with full confidence. (The definite article here is correct as the sentence is referring to one particular surgery.)

虽然是临时性取代用的诊室,医师针对一场(那一场)手术治疗仍深具自信心。 (在这儿应用定冠词「哪个(the)」才算是恰当的,由于就是指一场特殊的手术治疗。)

Problem: ‘the’ mistakenly used in place of ‘a’

情况:在应当应用「一个(a)」的地区却用了「哪个(the)」

1,The sign was posted above the camp. Volunteers said the sign was important for keeping peace in the camp. (Here “the sign” should be “a sign” as this is new information for the reader.)

哪个标示被贴到在难民营上。志愿兵说该标示针对难民营保持友谊是十分关键的。 (在这儿应当要写「一个标示」而不是「哪个标示」,由于这针对阅读者而言是一则新资讯。)

Problem: ‘the’ used where not needed

情况:不应该应用「哪个(the)」

1,Passang Lama is always seen wearing a long ponytail as it is a tradition in the Tibet for men and women to wear their hair long. (No ‘the’ in front of country names…although there are a few exceptions to this rule)

Passang喇嘛一直绑着长马尾辫,由于那时哪个西藏自治区男孩和女孩的传统式风俗习惯。 (即便会出现极少数的除外情况,但一般 不可在国家名字前边再加上定冠词「哪个(the)」)

2,Volunteers of the Beijing’s Chaoyang District called on members of the community to join the event. (No ‘the’ in front of city/street/names)

哪个北京海淀区的人民群众号召各界人士添加本次的主题活动。 (在大城市、街道社区、名字前边不可再加上定冠词「哪个(the)」)

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