英国人文社科代写 -Discovered India’s Lost Religio

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The Buddha and the Sahibs: The Men Who Discovered India's Lost Religion

佛陀和萨希布:发现印度失落宗教的人


英国人文社科代写  The modern era of civilization has transformed the meaning of “Orientalism.” The term was used to describe the ..


By Charles Allen

The modern era of civilization has transformed the meaning of “Orientalism.” The term was used to describe the knowledge about the Orient which the western researchers coined in the era of enlightenment (King). However, today the term is used but in a heavy pejorative overtone.

The writer of “The Buddha and the Sahibs,” Charles Allen is a London based freelance  . Writer whose work focuses on Indian history. He is viewed as the most underrated and consistently enjoyable writers of his times. For more than 28 years, he worked to unearth the unfashionable field of Indian colonial history.

Therefore, he has produced a variety of well-researched, finely written and readable manuscripts on Indian history. His work has illuminated on the various unwritten British Indian history collection.

The Buddha and the Sahibs book is fascinating and valuable as Allen shows how and why Buddhism died out in the land of its origin. It is very well known that when Muslims first came to India, they desecrated temples and smashed idols. It was quickly forgotten that in the time of Hindu revival, the majority of the Hindu rulers behaved like Buddhists.

译文:查尔斯·艾伦    英国人文社科代写

现代文明时代已经改变了“东方主义”的含义。该术语用于描述西方研究人员在启蒙时代(国王)创造的关于东方的知识。然而,今天这个词被使用,但带有强烈的贬义色彩。

《佛陀与萨希布》的作者,查尔斯·艾伦是伦敦的自由职业者。作家,其作品侧重于印度历史。他被认为是他那个时代最被低估和最令人愉快的作家。 28 多年来,他一直致力于发掘印度殖民历史这个不合时宜的领域。

因此,他撰写了大量关于印度历史的经过充分研究、书写精美且可读性强的手稿。他的作品照亮了各种不成文的英属印度历史收藏。

《佛陀与萨希布》这本书引人入胜且有价值,因为艾伦展示了佛教如何以及为何在其发源地消亡。众所周知,当穆斯林第一次来到印度时,他们亵渎寺庙并砸毁偶像。人们很快忘记了,在印度教复兴时期,大多数印度教统治者的行为都像佛教徒。


During the time of Indian Persecution

that is decades before the arrival of Islam, Buddhism which was a rival philosophy to Hinduism, disappeared from India (Lawrence). One of the incidents is when Harsha Deva boasted of destroying more than 4000 Buddist shrines. Another one by name Sasanka of Bengal sacked the monastery and felled the tree of wisdom which the Buddha had received enlightenment.

Today, the number of Buddhist in the west has increased exponentially, but for the previous 2000 years, the practice was only known to the Asians. The Buddhist belief and practice began spreading in the 18th century when Sir William Oriental Jones broke down the Brahmin’s prohibition on learning their sacred language.

The book details tell of the careers and contribution of scholar Orientalists ranging from William Jones to Vincent Smith.

译文:在印度迫害时期  英国人文社科代写

那是在伊斯兰教到来之前的几十年,作为印度教的敌对哲学的佛教从印度消失了(劳伦斯)。 其中一个事件是哈沙德瓦吹嘘摧毁了 4000 多座佛教圣地。 另一位孟加拉的萨桑卡(Sasanka)洗劫了寺院,砍倒了佛陀证悟的智慧树。

今天,西方的佛教徒数量成倍增加,但在过去的 2000 年里,只有亚洲人知道这种做法。 佛教信仰和实践开始于 18 世纪传播,当时威廉东方琼斯爵士打破了婆罗门学习他们神圣语言的禁令。

这本书详细讲述了从威廉·琼斯到文森特·史密斯等东方学者的职业生涯和贡献。

在印度迫害时期

那是在伊斯兰教到来之前的几十年,作为印度教的敌对哲学的佛教从印度消失了(劳伦斯)。 其中一个事件是哈沙德瓦吹嘘摧毁了 4000 多座佛教圣地。 另一位孟加拉的萨桑卡(Sasanka)洗劫了寺院,砍倒了佛陀证悟的智慧树。

今天,西方的佛教徒数量成倍增加,但在过去的 2000 年里,只有亚洲人知道这种做法。 佛教信仰和实践开始于 18 世纪传播,当时威廉东方琼斯爵士打破了婆罗门学习他们神圣语言的禁令。

这本书详细讲述了从威廉·琼斯到文森特·史密斯等东方学者的职业生涯和贡献。


英国人文社科代写

As Charles Allen wrote in his book

Jones led to the increased interest in the Indian culture with more amateur enthusiasts working to discover the lost Indian history. Working from the Calcutta premises, the reports were collated from eccentric figures who worked to translate Buddhists scrolls, Gandharan coins, and other mythologies.

Before Jones’s arrival, in India, the west has wholly ignored about the Indian classical histories. Afterward, his arrival led to the exhumation of lost Indian histories about Ashoka, Kanishka as well as Buddha himself. The fact about Buddha existence surprised the west scholars how it has been in existence until they knew about it in the 19th century.

The book can be viewed as a simple text of the gripping story of the intellectual expedition in the form of a finely written narrative of Indian history which was a previously unknown tale of cultural treasures of classical India. On the other side, the narrative is a counterblast of the current academic faddism.

译文:正如查尔斯·艾伦在他的书中所写  英国人文社科代写

琼斯引起了人们对印度文化的兴趣增加,越来越多的业余爱好者致力于发现失落的印度历史。在加尔各答工作,这些报告是从古怪的人物那里整理出来的,他们致力于翻译佛教徒的卷轴、犍陀罗硬币和其他神话。

在琼斯到来之前,在印度,西方完全忽视了印度的古典历史。之后,他的到来导致了有关阿育王、迦尼什卡以及佛陀本人的失传印度历史的发掘。佛陀存在的事实让西方学者感到惊讶,直到他们在 19 世纪才知道它的存在。

这本书可以被视为智力远征的扣人心弦故事的简单文本,以精美的印度历史叙述的形式呈现,这是一个以前不为人知的古典印度文化宝藏故事。另一方面,这种叙述是对当前学术狂热的反击。


After the success of the Edward Said on the exploration of the Indian past

it has become the center of attention as well as the scholarly assaults. As such, Orientalist was contorted to become an outright academic abuse. As a result, men like Sir Jones was seen as a complicit in gathering colonial knowledge.

The colonialist attempted to appropriate Indian learning and portray the superiority of the western culture while sidelining the Indian culture and religion as decayed and degenerate, which only fitted to be colonized and civilized.

In this context, at the height of the British scholars, as Mr. Allen depict them in the studies of Buddhism, did it just as a part-time thing with amateur enthusiasm and intellectual excitements rather than being guided by professionalism ambitions. One of Mr. Allen profound exhume from Obscurity is James Prinsep whose experience was horrifying after seeing the injustices and inequalities around him.

It was unexpected to him to see Indian natives being excused from the European society or being enslaved in their country.

The book also talks of the renown James Prinsep who deciphered the edicts of Emperor Ashoka. Ashoka was honored for the memory he harbored before he died in 1840, by the residents of Calcutta.

译文:爱德华·赛义德对印度历史的探索成功之后 英国人文社科代写

它已成为人们关注的焦点,也成为学术攻击的焦点。因此,东方主义者被扭 曲为彻头彻尾的学术滥用。结果,像琼斯爵士这样的人被视为收集殖民知识的同谋。

殖民主义者企图盗用印度的学问,描绘西方文化的优越性,而将印度文化和宗教看成是腐朽堕落的,只适合被殖民和文明化。

在这种背景下,在英国学者的鼎盛时期,正如艾伦先生在佛教研究中所描绘的那样,他们只是以业余热情和知识兴奋的兼职方式来做这件事,而不是受专业主义野心的指导。来自 Obscurity 的 Allen 先生的其中一位深度挖掘者是 James Prinsep,在看到他周围的不公正和不平等之后,他的经历令人震惊。

看到印度原住民被排除在欧洲社会之外或在他们的国家被奴役,令他感到意外。

这本书还谈到了著名的詹姆斯普林塞普,他破译了阿育王的法令。阿育王因其在 1840 年去世前的记忆而受到加尔各答居民的尊敬。


However, the book has some details which were either selective or wrong.

For example, Allen talks of desecration of the Mahabodhi temple by Sasanka. This was supposedly an illustration of the role of Brahmin zealots in the overthrow of Buddhist viharas. Allen failed to state the role of Brahmin in the reconstruction of the Mahabodhi temple before the destruction could happen. Further,

his assessment of the director of the Archeological Survey of  British India, John Marshall, offers no new idea in the development of the book and also gets wrong dating of history. John Marshall did not come to India in 1903 but in 1902 and did not left Taxila in 1934 but 1937 . The most astounding is the author's description of Burma.

The book talks about the inhibitor of east of Bengal of whom Burma was seen to be the most dominant. The description is shocking to the readers as it would be to the to Allen if England were described as one of the tribes that inhabited the European continent in the 19th century.

The book further becomes fundamentally flawed when it fails to reflect on how the Asians viewed the Europen exploration  . Of their history in their land .  The Indians sentiments towards the scholars work in understanding their culture and religion was negative as they saw them as thieves who came to steal their gods.

译文:然而,这本书有一些细节是选择性的或错误的。 英国人文社科代写

例如,艾伦谈到萨桑卡对摩诃菩提寺的亵渎。这被认为是婆罗门狂热者在推翻佛教寺院中所起的作用的例证。艾伦未能说明婆罗门在摩诃菩提寺的重建中所扮演的角色,以免发生破坏。更多,

他对英属印度考古调查局局长约翰·马歇尔的评估在本书的发展过程中没有提供新的想法,而且还错误地确定了历史的年代。约翰马歇尔不是在 1903 年而是在 1902 年来到印度,并且不是在 1934 年而是在 1937 年离开塔克西拉。最令人震惊的是作者对缅甸的描述。

这本书谈到了孟加拉东部的抑制剂,其中缅甸被认为是最主要的。如果将英格兰描述为 19 世纪居住在欧洲大陆的部落之一,那么这种描述会让读者感到震惊,就像对艾伦而言一样。

当这本书没有反思亚洲人如何看待欧洲的勘探时,它进一步变得存在根本性的缺陷。他们在他们土地上的历史。印度人对学者的情绪在理解他们的文化和宗教方面是消极的,因为他们认为他们是来偷神的小偷。


In the proving of this negative opinion about the work

there are recordings by the British Baptist missionary ,  John Chamberlain, of the 19th-century conversation on account of British exploration in Asia.

A story goes on that Charles Stuart;  A British officer had tried to persuade Brahmin ,  Who was a guardian priest in the temple of Lakshmi ,  To sell the idol to him by even showing him the display of idol collection in Calcutta. However, Brahmin refused to sell his goddess ,  But Stuart stole the idol at night and left the priest and the pilgrimage without the object on which to show reverence.

The writer portrays westerner like Stuart as neural parties in the scientific enterprise  , But on the contrary, they were rooters of the Indian cultural and religious heritage.

Consequently ,  The Orientalists and archaeologists were seen as the signifiers of an “Epoch of Loss.” Reason being, the devotees whose goddesses and shrines were forcefully taken away felt their presence as a loss than benefit to the Indians’ religious and cultural heritage. Mr.

Allen’s narrative eulogizing the contribution of the westerners ignoring colonial violence which Orientalists inflicted to the people as well as to their cultures and religion ,  Is unconvincing and suspicious.

In the book, Mr. Allen successfully depicted how Buddism has changed over time. He has achieved this by unearthing the unwritten origin of Britain Indian History. The narrative forms a perfect reference on which the study of Buddhism can be reviewed and analyzed. Therefore, Allen’s work has become valuable text in modern society as a backward-looking at the studies of religion and culture.

译文:在证明对这项工作的负面看法时 英国人文社科代写

英国浸信会传教士约翰·张伯伦 (John Chamberlain) 记录了 19 世纪英国在亚洲探险的谈话。

一个故事发生在查尔斯·斯图尔特身上;一位英国官员曾试图说服婆罗门,他是拉克希米神庙的守护神,甚至向他展示了在加尔各答展示的偶像收藏品。然而,婆罗门拒绝出售他的女神,但斯图亚特在晚上偷走了神像,让牧师和朝圣者没有任何可以表示崇敬的对象。

作者将像斯图亚特这样的西方人描绘成科学事业中的神经党,但相反,他们是印度文化和宗教遗产的根基。

因此,东方学家和考古学家被视为“失落时代”的象征。原因是,被强行带走女神和神龛的奉献者认为他们的存在对印度人的宗教和文化遗产来说是一种损失而不是利益。先生。

艾伦的叙述颂扬西方人的贡献,无视东方主义者对人民以及他们的文化和宗教施加的殖民暴力,是没有说服力和可疑的。

在这本书中,艾伦先生成功地描绘了佛教如何随着时间的推移而发生变化。他通过发掘不列颠印度历史的不成文起源来实现这一目标。叙述形成了一个完美的参考,可以用来回顾和分析佛教研究。因此,艾伦的著作作为一种对宗教和文化研究的回顾,成为现代社会的宝贵文本。


Work Cited

Charles Allen. The Buddha and the Sahibs. London: John Murray, 2002

King, Richard. Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and" The Mystic East". Routledge, 2013.

Lawrence, David Peter. "Buddhist–Hindu Dialogue." The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Inter-Religious Dialogue (2013): 187.

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