这些【英语语句】的差异你都了解吗?_essay代写


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一,中文中没有英语中那么多的坎坷转变

1. 英文动词时态的坎坷转变在中文里沒有相对的方式。

(1) 当她回家时,她将看来我。

(×)She will see me when she come back.

(√)She will see me when she comes back.

(2) 自打我们分手后,还没有碰到啥事。

(×)Nothing happened since we parted.

(√)Nothing has happened since we parted.

(3) 暑假早已有一周了。

(×)It is a week since the holidays begin.

(√)It is a week since the holidays began.

(4) 他想要去英国,但是没取得成功。

(×)He wanted to go to America but fail.

(√)He wanted to go to America but failed.

2. 英文名词复数的坎坷转变在中文里沒有相对的方式。

(1)他是院校中最出色的老师之一。

(×)He is one of the most successful teacher in the school.

(√)He is one of the most successful teachers in the school.

(2)他给了我很多劝诫。

(×)He gave me many good advices.

(√)He gave me many pieces of good advice.

3. 代词的坎坷转变。

最普遍的不正确是该用宾格的地区用主格。中国学生经常忽视 he 与 him,she 与 her的差别,由于中文里沒有这类差别。如:

(1)发言的人是他。

(×)The man who spoke was him.

(√)The man who spoke was he.

(2)除他之外,也没有其他盆友。

(×)I have no friend but he.

(√)I have no friend but him.

(3)有些人跟我说你病了,但我忘记了到底是谁。

(×)Someone told me that you were ill, but I forgot whom.

(√)Someone told me that you were ill, but I forgot who.

(4)这件事情就是我做的。

(×)It is me that have done this work.

(√)It is I that have done this work.

二,留意汉语无而英语有的状况

1. 冠词是英语短句里的一个关键一部分。当专有名词前沒有所有格形式时,假如指一类物品中的一个或好多个特殊事情,要应用定冠词;假如指一类事情中一切一个,就用不定冠词。因为中文中沒有和冠词(a/an/the)非常的语汇,因而在翻译时,要留意在必须的地区应用冠词。

(1)气温很热。

(×)Weather is very hot.

(√)The weather is very hot.

(2)我们在接着的礼拜来到上海市。

(×)We went to Shanghai next week.

(√)We went to Shanghai the next week.

(3)他感冒发烧,因此他沒有来念书。

(×)He stayed away from school because he had cold.

(√)He stayed away from school because he had a cold.

(4)铁架子上绝大多数书籍是小说集。

(×)Most of books on shelf are novels.

(√)Most of the books on the shelf are novels.

(5)中午3 时,全体师生在学校门口结合,热烈欢迎英国学员。英国学员将参观考察公共图书馆、校办厂、试验楼、教学大楼和游泳馆。

All the students will meet at the school gate at 3︰00 this afternoon and give the American students a warm welcome. The American students will visit the school library, the school factory, the lab building, the classroom building and the swimming pool.

中国学生在做这种训练时,经常丢弃冠词,让人不明就里。

2. 在较为时,英文常见「that of」或「those of」以防止反复,也就是要把两种对比的物品对称性地讲出,而中文却能够省去,其实际意义早已很清晰。

(1)北京天气比上海市冷。

(×)The climate of Beijing is colder than Shanghai.

(√)The climate of Beijing is colder than that of Shanghai.

(2)他的图书比我的多。

(×)The books he has collected are more than me.

(√)The books he has collected are more than those of mine.

3. 别的汉语无而英语有的状况。

(1)语句开始应英文大写。

(2)用单引号组成名词所有格方式和简称,如:he』s = he is 或 he has;we』re = we are。

(3)汉语沒有不定式、动名词。

(4)汉语沒有虚拟语气。

三,中文中没有英语「英语的语法作用词」及其语法结构相联络的词

1. 英语中 and 用于联接动词短语或并列句,但联接别的词或语句等时,中文能够省去与 and 有一样实际意义与作用的连词。这一差别导致中国学生英译汉或使用英文时常常写成语病。

(1)我到城内买来几个词典。

(×)I went to town, bought some dictionaries.

(√)I went to town and bought some dictionaries.

(2)教师问了我一个难题,我不想回应。

(×)The teacher asked me a question, I couldn』t answer it.

(√)The teacher asked me a question, and/but I couldn』t answer it.

(3)那么冷,我不敢出来。

(×)It』s cold that I』m afraid to go out.

(√)It is so cold that I』m afraid to go out.

(4)大家捡木柴,她们搭户外帐篷。

(×)We gathered the wood, they set up the tent.

(√)We gathered the wood and they set up the tent.

(5)我没出来,呆在家里去看书。

(×)I didn』t go out, I stayed home and read.

(√)I didn』t go out; instead, I stayed home and read.

由(2)~(5) 题得知,分号在中文与英语中的功效并不是完全一致。英语中句与句中间的联络决不借助分号,只是依靠连词,缺乏连词,句与句中间也就不会有其合理化。

2. either...or;neither...nor;so(...)that 等都与中文存有差别。中文中相似的意思在英语中用不一样的语法结构表明,这就给中国学生在中译英的创作上产生了艰难。

(1)他哪些都不干,睡了一整天。

He didn』t do anything but slept all day.

(2)近期菜和肉都偏贵。

Both meat and vegetables are expensive these days.

(3)他不抽烟,也不喝酒。

He neither smokes nor drinks.

(4)你能乘火车,还可以乘飞机。

You can get there either by train or by plane.

3. 中文中重视关联词的应用,如「由于……因此……」,「尽管……可是……」,「虽然……还/仍」,但英文却不可以对等汉语翻译,且有其他叫法。

(1)由于我的车坏走在路上,因此我来晚了。

Because my car broke down on the way, I came late.(=The reason why I came late is that my car broke down on the way.)

(2)尽管他不大,但了解得许多 。

Though/Although he is young, he knows a lot.(=He is young, but he knows a lot. =Young as he is, he knows a lot.)

4. 英语介词远比汉语介词活跃性。

(1)在教师的协助下,我的英语获得了发展。

(×)Under the teacher』s help I have made progress in my English.

(√)With the teacher』s help, I have made progress in my English.

(2)有些人叩门。

(×)Someone is knocking the door.

(√)Someone is knocking at the door.

(3)不必太阳底下阅读。

(×)Don』t read under the sun.

(√)Don』t read in the sun.

(4)我支持你。

I support you/I am for you/I agree with you/I am on your side.

四,留意中英句子成分的差别

1. 中文语句的六个成份的关联和基础部位可归纳为以下一首口决,以便捷记忆力:

主谓宾,定状补,主杆枝干分清晰;

基本特征主谓宾,额外成份定状补;

定语多在主语前,谓前为状谓后补;

六者关联辨明晰,剖析正误心了解。

因为汉英句子有较显著差别,又因为学员长时间地触碰中文句子构造,从而所产生的意识就难以避免还会对学生英语学习培训产生负面影响,造成副作用。

2. 在英语短句中,定语和状语与主、谓、宾的关联,大概能够归纳到下边的方式里:

(定语)—主语—(定语)/〔状语〕—宾语—〔状语〕/(定语)—宾语—<补语>

中文与英文则有不一样。无论定语和状语多么的繁杂,他们与主、谓、宾的关联,还可以大概归纳到下边的方式里:

(定语)—主语/〔状语〕—宾语—<补语>/(定语)—宾语

由之上汉英二种方式的较为能够看得出,英文的定语能够外置,还可以后置摄像头。假如定语选用语句方式,不但要后置摄像头,并且还务必用关联词来正确引导。英文的状语则一般放到句尾或句首,尤其是用各种各样短语作状语的情况更是如此,而中文的状语一般 放到宾语的前边。

(1)五月份能处理这个问题。

We can solve the problem in May.

(2)花一百万美元就能处理这个问题。

We can solve the problem with one million dollars.

(3)艰苦奋斗能处理这个问题。

We can solve the problem by working hard.

3. 中文无主语并不是是主语省略句,其主语难以用确立的词句补上,而英语中却可以用相对的词补上。

(1)表明「气温」、「间距」、「時间」等。

1,现在几点?

What time is it?

2,我的表是九点十五分。

It is nine fifteen by my watch.

3,今早很冷,下午或许会降雪。

It is very cold this morning, and it may snow after noon.

4,我们家到院校是4千米。

It is four kilometers from my house to our school.

(2)表明表明。

1.七、八月放假。

We have summer vacation in July and August.

2.一般 六点打灯。

The lights are usually turned on at six.

3.本剧场内严禁吸烟。

Smoking is not allowed in this theatre.

4. 中文补语和英语状语的较为和对译:

中文补语和英语状语一样,都装饰宾语。

(1)他写出来。

He wrote it out.

(2)他写在教室黑板上。

He wrote it on the blackboard.

(3)他写了三遍。

He wrote it three times.

(4)他写給他的老婆。

He wrote it to his wife.

(5)他写的好看。

He wrote it beautifully.

(6)他写的快又准。

He wrote it both quickly and well.

(7)他写的满身是汗。

He wrote it until sweating all over.

5. 主谓数的一致。

汉语不规定主语和形容词在尊称和数上保持一致,而英语则非常注重这一点。主语和谓语动词应维持数和尊称上的一致,这是英语在应用全过程中最重要的标准之一。而在中文中主语和谓语动词则沒有这类一致性。不管主语的尊称和数怎样转变,动词形式沒有转变。

(1)我们班学员总人数是40。

(×)The mumber of students in our class are forty.

(√)The mumber of the students in our class is forty.

(2)他或是我准备去图书馆。

(×)He or I is going to the public library.

(√)He or I am going to the public library.

(3)他家人都很身心健康。

(×)His family is very well.

(√)His family are all well.

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