下边为大伙儿梳理一篇出色的assignment代笔范例-Environmental art design in anthropology，供大伙儿参照学习培训，这篇毕业论文探讨了社会学中的自然环境视觉传达设计。自然环境视觉传达设计的目地是构建怡人的环境卫生，最后完成佳园的定义。人是它的立足点和归处，这促使它与社会学结上了深厚感情。实际上，自然环境视觉传达设计中潜藏着丰富多彩的社会学栽培基质，从社会学的视线来研究和思索自然环境视觉传达设计不仅有很有可能，更必须，它能摆脱大家原有的局限了解，也是试着用一种新的课程逻辑思维再次思考自然环境视觉传达设计，进而在设计方案意识、设计方案技巧上提高大家对自然环境视觉传达设计的了解。
As marinovsky said,"anthropology is the study of human beings and their cultures at various levels of development,including the study of human bodies,racial differences,civilizations,social structures,and reactions of the mind to the environment.It can be seen that the research category of anthropology covers both biological and social aspects of human.Therefore,"according to the tradition of American anthropology,anthropology includes physical anthropology and cultural anthropology".Among them,physical anthropology takes human beings as a biological species to observe,it adopts anthropometric methods and other technical means to study human body structure,physical morphology,racial differences,etc.,in order to reveal the origin,evolution and development of human beings.In fact,the environmental design of physical anthropology factor is very strong.
From the perspective of design genetics,human beings have long taken human body shape as an important basis for design and transformed the specific human body shape into environmental art with human body image,which is very common in Chinese and western architectural space design.For example,many western classical buildings are designed according to the basic proportion and law of human body structure.For example,Doric column in ancient Greek Parthenon is designed according to the proportion of male body to show the beauty of masculinity.In addition,"vitruvius of ancient Rome,by perfectly and harmoniously connecting the human body scale with the circle and square,directly projected the human body onto the building,established the architectural model based on the human body proportion relationship.Architecture derives its authority,proportion and composition from the human body.Since then,vitruvius'ideal body measurement has been deconstructed and interpreted by architects of various eras as a kaleidoscope of different languages and colors.......?Lambda?For scientists,architecture is a veritable human body...Here,the architecture is endowed with an organic nature,thus becoming a body double and a symbol of human functions".Even in the modern era,such anthropological design thinking still exists in large quantities.Le corbusier often finds the proportion relation in architecture according to the human scale,hoping to obtain reasonable data of space design,so as to design a more convenient,safe and comfortable environment for users.
The factors of physical anthropology in environmental art design are also reflected in the extensive application of Human Engineering methods.Ergonomics is also known as Ergonomics or Ergonomics in Europe and Human Factors in the U.S.It mainly studies the interaction and coordination among people,object products and working environment,and studies the data of human body and its ability by means of field measurement and statistics,in an attempt to realize the optimization efficiency of the overall coordination of human-machine-environment system.Ergonomics is mainly studied from two aspects of physiology and psychology.The former focuses on quantifying the structure,scale and proportion of the body to obtain the basic parameters of the human body and pay attention to human safety.The latter studies the activity rules of people's feelings and behaviors under the stimulation of external factors such as color,shape and space,aiming at obtaining the psychological movement rules of people under certain conditions and satisfying the work efficiency of people in the environment or the comfort of people in the environment center.Can say human engineering applied to the integration of the"human form"in the physical anthropology and product technology science,environmental science knowledge,the academic disciplines has tried to make the products more effectively serve the people,the space environment of physiological needs,solve the big industrial production mass production,the homogeneity of the contradiction between environment and an individual differences.Physical anthropology provides methods and theoretical paradigm for ergonomics,and the wide application of ergonomics has become the most concrete manifestation of using physical anthropology in environmental art design.For example,seat design in indoor environment,height of sitting surface,number ratio relationship between sitting surface and human feet and legs,Angle relationship between sitting surface and backrest,etc.,are almost all designed according to the shape structure and size of human sitting posture,so as to make the seat more comfortable.Be like a lot of indoor and short sufficient furniture of ancient China again,the daily life habit that sits on the ground with the ancients is close relevant.The human body configuration change that the behavior pattern that sits on the ground brings becomes the basis that interior environment is basic dimension scale,it dominated interior environment to decorate,adornment and furniture design,make all sorts of furniture thereby,wait like case,a few,couch to want low than today on measure sufficient furniture,form short sufficient furniture series.The research on the evolution and development of human beings in physical anthropology is the origin of environmental art design.Its empirical thinking has inspired environmental art design in the concept,that is,environmental art design is not a behavior to take for granted,it should be understood as such,and more importantly,its cause.It also reveals that environmental art design should keep pace with The Times to pay attention to the changes in people's behavior habits,human body concept,in order to better design the space environment to meet the needs of modern people.For example,ethnographic research reveals the differences in human body shape and race from the differences in the geographical environment of different RACES in the east and the west,which is manifested as the differences in human body size and behavior habits.This research suggests that the design should pay attention to the basic parameters of the target objects,and pay attention to the human body size data of the local population and their changes.Another example is the study of human body morphology on the health of age and physical form,which reminds us that the design should start from the perspective of humanity,and pay special attention to the difference of human body form of special users,such as the environmental space design mainly for the elderly,the barrierless design for the disabled and so on.Environmental art design has always advocated the"people-oriented"design concept,also based on this understanding.At present,relevant awareness in this regard has been formed,but the deep and operable practice is still insufficient,especially in the study of human body data and morphology of local ethnic groups.To solve these problems,to a large extent,the help of physical anthropology methods is required.
If"the understanding of art becomes the interpretation of the symbolic meaning and cultural meaning of artistic symbols,which is the focus of modern art anthropology",then"cultural anthropology focuses on exploring the cultural characteristics and meanings of a region,a nation or a society from the perspective of customs.From the perspective of cultural anthropology,architecture is also a concrete form of human customs,and the evolution of architecture indicates the evolution of customs.This is used to explain the environmental art design,and the reasons are not separated,because the environment also implies the customs as a part of the ethnic culture,and environmental art is also an important form to express the human customs.From the perspective of structural anthropology,human customs have a priori unconscious structure,which can be recognized only through structural patterns,which can often form certain cultural symbols.As the soul of the environment,the spirit of the place contains human customs and often penetrates into the environmental space art in a symbolic way,becoming the symbolic meaning of environmental art.Of course,this symbolic infiltration is not only reflected in the form of specific environmental objects,it is also reflected in the spatial form,environmental atmosphere.If need the modelling of specific environmental goods form visual watch can grasp,then for space form,the environment atmosphere need them immediate experience of the body to feel,it is not mainly through the visual,but through the body touch to experience space,feeling and memory formation,so as to realize people's understanding of the meaning of the environment space.In this way,in environmental art design,the specific symbol of customs into the environment space can make the environment space become a cultural symbol with a certain meaning,become a cultural space with meaning.
How to turn certain custom symbols into the meaning of environmental space,turn social customs into meaningful environmental art forms,and form the so-called cultural symbols?Firstly,it is necessary to have some understanding of the site spirit in a certain area.Here,anthropological fieldwork methods must be used to personally investigate and experience specific environmental space and obtain first-hand information.In addition to the environment of space form,construction style,geographical features such as a detailed investigation,but also the social customs,ethnic culture of the region,such as settlement pattern,the city all the important ritualized activities,such as festivals and celebrations,party and so on characteristics and atmosphere,and how they are familiar with the space form of intertwined with the environment.Secondly,the environmental space is regarded as a social communication system,which is constructed by analogy with the organizational forms of various human behaviors.The orderly environmental space comes from social customs rather than functions,because ritualization can cause certain symbolic spatial order and situation.For example,"in typical ritualistic activities such as festivals and celebrations,architectural space has a tendency because of catering to the needs of ritualized behaviors,and the track of custom behavior determines the formation of meaning space.In addition,for the traditional visual images,symbols and shapes with the connotation of social customs?Mail jie?As a systematic collection,because these visual images and symbols can be transformed into the modeling or decoration of specific items and facilities in the environment in an artistic way,it can create a meaningful environment atmosphere and make it continue the implication of customs and culture in the new environment.
Looking at environmental art design from the perspective of cultural symbols,it makes the design vision no longer stay in the popular business model,but pay attention to the social customs and ethnic culture in people's life,as well as the regional culture brought by it.To seek design inspiration and materials from life and turn them into design resources also reveals the great charm of anthropology potential in environmental art design.
Ecological anthropology regards human and natural environment as two meta-fields,so it has become the essence of ecological anthropology to study the relationship between human and environment.Yuan dingsheng believed that"ecological anthropology is a science that studies the formation and development of human qualities,potentials and essential forces freely and correspondingly with nature by applying the theories and methods of anthropology.The realization of such correspondence constitutes the ecological relationship,ecological structure and ecological field,and forms the ecological freedom for the coordinated development of all parts,especially the overall sustainable development.Ecological anthropology,with the responsibility of thinking about the relationship between human and environment,can trace its origin to the environmental determinism in ancient Greece,and has experienced the development of many schools of thought,such as environmental functionalism,cultural ecology,cultural materialism,ecological system approach and national ecology,etc.They are all based on the relationship of human society,culture and environment to explore the ecological problems,such as ecological anthropology on the basis of ecosystem approach to research,it is very emphasis on human and environment influence each other,pay attention to the relationship between population and environment,and on the research methods,it also requires anthropologists measure and compare the value of different foods,the influence of different tillage methods on soil fertility,the energy dissipations of the various types of human activity,the environmental impact of livestock excrement and urine.
In terms of the relationship between human and nature,ecological anthropology takes nature as the common habitat of human and other species,which dispels the idea of anthropocentrism.Therefore,the dual tension between human and nature is weakened,and the integration of human and nature is regarded as the value of environmental existence.Ecological anthropology view of this kind of environment to promote the environmental art design to ecological design concept,it makes the ring beautify the environment art design changed ever,service function of human idea,have begun to ecological theory to guide design,so as to realize the sustainable development of environment,improve the quality of living environment,and it is very obvious in the outdoor environmental art design.For example,landscape ecological design in environmental art contains the environmental values of ecological anthropology,which can be seen from several basic principles of landscape ecological design.For example,environmental design emphasizes the principle of giving priority to nature,and requires the protection of existing natural resources.Emphasizing the principle of holistic design,landscape design is a comprehensive design of the overall human ecosystem,designed for human needs,but also for the needs of plants and animals,in order to maintain biodiversity as the principle;Design adaptability principle,maintain the natural landscape itself has a harmonious,stable structure and function,artificial design must adapt to the original natural landscape"design",as far as possible to reduce the side effects of artificial landscape elements,maintain the integrity of landscape structure,function.It can be seen that ecological anthropology has a profound influence on the concept of environmental art design in the thinking of the relationship between human and nature,and the specific design practice guided by ecological concept will inevitably lead to a series of completely different changes from the previous design in terms of technology,techniques and artistic views.
The purpose of environmental art design is to create a pleasant living environment,and ultimately achieve the ideal of"le ju"home.People are its starting point and destination,which makes it and anthropology indissoluble ties.In fact,lurking in the design of environmental art rich matrix of anthropology,from the view of anthropology to explore and think about environmental art design has probably already,more necessary,it can break the inherent limitations of understanding,we also try to think in a new discipline to re-examine environmental art design,thus on the design ideas and design methods improve our understanding of environmental art design,this for healthy and sustainable development with environmental art design is valuable.