1）研读全文.最先要认真阅读全文著作,随后对著作开展总体剖析,把握全文总的含意和构造,确立全篇的主题风格（the maintheme）和每段的文章段落疏忽（the main idea）.
a.summary应包含文中的关键客观事实（main facts）；省去多余的关键点（unnecessary details）.
“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.”
能够归纳为：”He was very brave in battle.”
“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.”
能够归纳为：“He was in financial difficulties.”
“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.”
能够归纳为：”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.”
“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.”
能够归纳为：”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.”
8） 应用最少的连词.例如,能够应用but, then, thus, yet, though,不可以应用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等很长的连词.一般 ,应用分号就可以达到应用连词的实际效果.
9) 文章内容中的第一人称说的话一般 在summary中转化成第三人称,进而把一大段的经典对白简单化,例如：
Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful… like eating cardboard or sand… just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.”
Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless.
Winterer, Caroline. The Mirror of Antiquity: American Women and the Classical Tradition, 1750-1900. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007.
In this follow-up to her earlier study, Winterer focuses on the place of classicism in the lives of American women. The unity or contiguity of this narrative depends, I think, on familiarity with the earlier work. Without having read Winterer’s first book, I might have found this volume arbitrary and insular.
Winterer begins by describing the place of classicism in the lives of well-educated (for their time) upper-class women of the pre-Revolutionary era. Classical motifs and a smattering of classical knowledge — not of original languages but of history and literature — were a way to ornament one’s conversation or one’s home, a way to participate at a superficial level in a social discourse with men.
During the Revolutionary era, women appealed to the ideal of the Roman matron to characterize themselves as guardians of republican virtue who played a key role in shaping the character of America’s youth — specifically, America’s sons — and thus the future of the country.
In her chapter on the early Republic, Winterer traces the way women appropriated or understood three key motifs or myths: the women of Sparta, Roman charity/the Grecian daughter, and the contrast between Minerva and Venus. I had never heard of Roman charity; now I am scarred for life. However, the myth, and its ready adoption by women (or by men talking about women?) says a lot about what women were expected to do and to be: completely self-abnegating in the service of patriarchy.
Winterer’s chapter on Grecian luxury discusses the importation of “classical,” and specifically Grecian/”oriental” motifs into fashion and decorating. Grecian dresses (white, flowing fabric, no corset, empire waist) were meant to make women look columnar; klismos chairs and sofas were meant to accentuate women’s life of leisure and repose. The whole section on the sofa as a symbol of status and decadence is amazing, simply for historicizing what is surely by now a ubiquitous and completely unremarkable object.
At the same time that classical knowledge was being criticized as being irrelevant and elite, classicism was going mainstream for women (and the democracy in general) with the rise of museums and cultural venues that put access to the classical past within the reach of more people. In “female academies,” women’s seminaries, and colleges, more and more women began to learn classical languages. Winterer does not say if this increased access of women to the classics “caused” their decline in prestige or was a consequence of it.* But she does point out repeatedly throughout the book the irony that women gained full participation in the tradition of classical learning when classical learning was no longer central to American public and political life. In her chapter on the Greek slave, Winterer discusses how classicism informed polemics about the place of women in society, and the nobility (or lack thereof) of female slaves seeking freedom. In the last chapter, on Antigone, Winterer talks about how the play offered a vehicle to portray female heroism, but a heroism that was linked to gender essentialism in the 19th century.