argumentative essay中文意思是啥?Argumentative Essay该怎么写?

 

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argumentative essay中文意思就是我们常说的议论文写作。Argumentative Essay确实难以写,但是大家都能处理,下边是一篇范例,有时无论是发表文章还是做组织,发火没有用啊!

文中是一篇「游行示威是不是有暴力行为难题」的范例,多加写议论文的三项輔助方式,由于超出了一篇博的篇数,只能分上、分几篇,续篇是范例的文章正文及注解。续篇包含范例的文章正文,但沒有注解,还包含写好argumentative essay的三个方式。

(1)怎样用modal (auxiliary) verbs调节语调(调节说得太直、太死得话);

(2)怎样用-ly adverbs调节语调(调节说得太直、太死得话);

(3)怎样用-ly adverbs提升语调(和(1)、(2)反过来)。

它是上篇。

范例的题型。

Seeing the rise in protesting activities in Hong Kong, some people are worried that Hong Kong may become a violent city, while others are supportive of the protestors. Write a letter to the Young Post stating your views on the issue. Sign your name 'Chris Wong'

立意:这条题型的关键仅有一个字violent/violence。学生能够兼写正、反建议,还可以只写方形或只写反方建议,题型沒有特殊的规定。

这题型能够有二种书写。亲编制的盆友能够写「中国香港是全面依法治国,所有人不可违反规定…私自坐到大街上或闯入展览馆便是违反规定…暴力行为便是违反规定…危害平静…危害稳定兴盛…因而危害到每一个人」这些。坚信还可以获得很优异成绩,彻底没有问题。

但是,本人感觉,之上的阐述稍嫌片面性,只谈状况,沒有讨论状况身后的缘故,就仿佛说:

「授课就应认真听讲,不可在课堂上做认真听讲之外的一切事儿,这叫班级纪律,不可违背,每个人违背班级纪律,学校制度便会奔溃…」

可是,我想问一下,为何校学生会在教室看另一本书、做另一课的课程、交谈、冥想训练、魂游、打机或是做别的事儿?很有可能由于学员自身无意向学,也很有可能由于学员发生了一些个人问题,也很有可能由于教师每堂都讲得不知所谓,学员吃不消!

有关游行示威和说白了暴力行为,我的写法是:

「只指责示威者是片面性的,其一。游行示威仅仅状况,状况身后的缘故是政府部门治国不当,其二。若有些人假游行示威之名违法犯罪(比如一边游行示威一边走入百佳超市抢掠)自然应当处罚,其三。但游行示威时的一些错乱和推撞无可避免,全世界都这般,香港人早已是全球最友谊的示威者,其四。处理社会发展矛盾的方式并不是前去镇压,只是由政府部门去调节现行政策,其五。」

原文中的modal verbs用了鲜红色粗字体,用于调节语调的-ly adverbs用了深蓝色,都和写好议论文的三种方式相关,会在续篇的文后较详尽地谈。

似乎题型,比如题型尤其规定讨论科学馆的事,开始能够那样写。但是,考题大部分不容易想要你写某些恶性事件(isolated incident)。

Dear Editor:

I am writing to state my views on the scuffles1 at the Science Museum2 during the consultation forums3 on September 1 on the government’s plan to scrap Legislative Council by-elections4.

Some social sectors4a condemn the protestors for forcing open the doors5 of the venue and leading to the scuffles. They consider the incident a sign warning of a possible deterioration of Hong Kong into a violent city. (或是They warn of a possible deterioration6 of Hong Kong into a city of violence.)


  1. scuffles 推撞。

  2. the Science Museum 科学馆。

  3. consultation forum咨询会。

  4. scrap Legislative Council by-elections 废止立法会补选。

  5. a some social sectors一些社会发展界别/团队

  6. condemn the protestors for forcing open the doors 斥责示威者强制开关门,构造是condemn somebody for doing something。

  7. deterioration 衰退。

假如考题紧紧围绕「友谊」与「暴力行为」,能够那样写:

Dear Editor,

I am writing to state my views on the increasing acts of protests by political parties and grass-roots organizations in Hong Kong, which are considered / alleged as7 violent by some social sectors.

The pro-establishment camp8 condemns the activists for staging sits-in8a, trying to pulling down security barricades9a and scuffling with the police. They consider such acts to be signs warning of a possible deterioration of Hong Kong into a violent city. (或是They warn of a possible deterioration of Hong Kong into a city of violence.)

7,Active voice是consider A as B;Passive voice 是A was considered as B。

8,pro-establishment camp 亲建制派

8a,condemns the activists for staging sits-in的构造是condemn somebody for doing something。

9a,try to pull down security barricades 拉铁马金戈

Personally9, I don't think Hong Kong has got to that stage. Putting all the blame on protestors is rather one-sided10. Demonstration is generally11 a manifestation of social grievance12, and we should explore the causes behind13. Some questions can help our understanding of the issue14(或Some questions may help us understand the issue.). Why hasn't the government had sufficient consultation with us before deciding on its policy? What makes people who are otherwise placid take to the streets?15 Is there any abuse of police power16? Do the police use pepper spray arbitrarily? Isn't it an insult to peaceful protestors to handcuff them?18


  1. Personally本人觉得。此外,personally也可解作「亲自」。

  2. one-sided 只看到难题的一面;片面性的。

  3. generally 一般 。

  4. a manifestation of social grievance 社会发展不良情绪的展现,构造是A of B。

  5. explore the causes behind 追寻身后的缘故,构造是Verb object adverb (VOA)。

  6. issue 难题;议案。

  7. What makes people who are otherwise placid take to the streets? 什么导致原本友谊的人在街上? (什么导致在别的状况下友谊的人在街上?)placid 和此段最尾的peaceful是近义词,那样写是用「换字法」。好过前边又写peaceful后边又写peaceful。

  8. abuse of police power乱用警权。

  9. arbitrarily 随意地;果断地。

  10. 这一段先说「本人觉得中国香港沒有变为暴力城市,然后说只怪责示威者是片面性的,由于游行示威是社会发展不良情绪的展现,」随后用Some questions can help our understanding of the issue带出好多个难题。这种难题自身就包括了回答。假如要阐述政府部门怎样不对,要讲到日光,问几个强有力的难题是非常简单、易写的作文方式。因此,诸位,请温习问句的结构。

Opinion surveys19 have shown that the approval rate for the government has kept falling / has reached an all-time nadir of [․ ] , attributable21 to a number of government policies which have fuelled social inequality22 and triggered mounting social discontent23. Indeed, we cannot help questioning24 whether the government has done its best to be as equitable and reasonable as it is supposed to be25.


  1. opinion surveys 社情民意调查,这儿用众数,含糊其词,沒有指出是哪些调研。谁人到试场还会继续还记得这种?

  2. 在试场,大部分会写have kept falling,几类数据调查报告政府部门民望一直下挫,那样写也符合事实。 Have kept falling的构造是verb -ing form。

  3. attributable 可归功于。这个字很常见。我这句话的设计灵感来源于我听见的新闻报导,社情民意调查后,比如港大等调查机构会试着分析调查报告。

  4. fuelled social inequality 加重社会发展的不合理,构造是verb adjective noun,难题取决于你是否懂用fuel这一形容词。你如今明白了,写出它,优秀作文时很有可能有效。

  5. triggered mounting social discontent,开启日益提升的社会发展不良情绪,构造是verb adj adj noun。 Mounting 是increasing的近义词→还记得换字法吗?

  6. we cannot help questioning 或one cannot help questioning 均可,指大家禁不住要问,构造是cannot help -ing,是个常用构造。

  7. whether the government has done its best to be as equitable and reasonable as it is supposed to be 政府部门有无竭尽全力保证它应当保证(群众期待它保证)的公正和有效

There's no denying26 that some citizens are dissatisfied and want their voices to be heard. Unquestionably, they are angry about the government's lack of long-term plans, incompetence in dealing with the widening wealth gap27, and attempts to scrap Legislative Council by-elections / attempts to reverse Hong Kong's nascent democracy28 / reluctance to promote genuine universal suffrage29.


  1. there’s no denying 不可置否。

  2. incompetence in dealing with the widening wealth gap 乏力解决已经加重的贫富差距,构造是incompetence in doing something。

  3. attempts to reverse Hong Kong’s nascent democracy 试着给中国香港新生的民主化开倒车。 Hong Kong’s nascent democracy的构造是 「’s」 adj noun。

  4. reluctance to promote genuine universal suffrage 促进真普选时踌躇不前/心不甘不肯。

One could say that people take to the streets30 because they are dissatisfied. They evidently want their voices to be heard. Their dissatisfaction may have culminated into a variety of behavioural reactions. They stage street protests31 and sit-ins32 in an attempt to arouse the attention of society33. They want to make the government feel the pressure34 and alert the government to their problems35. And they do not mean to harm anyone36. (或Thus, one may conclude that they do not mean to harm anyone.)


  1. take to the streets 在街上。

  2. stage street protests 启动街边强烈抗议,protests前边也许读过了,此次写street protests,也是换字法。

  3. sit-ins 静座。

  4. arouse the attention of society 勾起社会发展留意。请注意,society 特指社会发展时无需the。在文中,如society 以前用the,变成了勾起「哪个」社会发展的留意,堵塞的。总而言之,society不必随意用the。假如你优秀作文时不毫无疑问须否用the,教你一个方式,写our society,比如这儿,变为吸引住「大家」社会发展的留意,通的。

  5. make the government feel the pressure令政府部门感受到工作压力,构造是make object infinitive without to object of infinitive。

  6. alert the government to their problems令政府部门留意她们的难题,alert A to B。

  7. And they do not mean to harm anyone. 她们不经意损害所有人。这一段讲了两行,便是想说这句话,一定要注意,我写的情况下,这句话原本放到正中间,重看时发现放到最尾好一些。

Unruly elements37 who commit crimes in the name of protests38 should, of course, be punished by law. That said39, we should admit that Hong Kong people may be the most peaceful in parading40 and that some chaotic scenes41 and minor scuffles42 are common in protesting activities all over the world. The government should not be afraid of such acts; the police should not try to suppress them. Suppression and attempts to enlarge upon/to amplify the alleged “violence” of Hongkongers who try to voice their views43 will inevitably further alienate44 them. Instead, the Chief Executive and all Bureau heads45 should humbly46 listen and respond to47 their requests.47


  1. unruly elements非法分子。

  2. commit crimes in the name of protests 假游行示威之名违法犯罪。

  3. That said 解「尽管这般」,用于转话锋,即「讲了之上这些话以后,大家也要考虑到下列的啥啥啥」,随后就逐渐说另一个不一样或反过来的见解。 That said和Having said that同义词。

  4. parading游街。 Protest用多了,改成parading,是换字法。

  5. chaotic scenes 错乱场景。

  6. minor scuffles 小推撞。

  7. enlarge upon/amplify the alleged “violence” of Hongkongers who try to voice their views变大她们常说的、想表达意见的香港人的「暴力行为」。

  8. alienate 让人抽滤。 Alienate Mr. A 令Mr. A 抽滤/丧失Mr. A 的适用。

  9. Bureau heads现行政策局长。

  10. humbly 谦虚地。

  11. respond to回复。

  12. 也是换字法,前边用了views,这儿改成requests。

To seek fundamental solutions to our social conflicts, we definitely need a re-think on48 the acts and feelings of the people! I genuinely believe that, by doing things differently, not only can the government improve its image substantially and win significant support, but it can also bring us a fairer society49.  We certainly need a government with the right values50.Chris Wong


  1. a re-think on something 再次思索某件事。

  2. 它是部分倒装构造→Not only can Mr. A do B, but Mr. A can also do C。请注意,那样写的情况下,B和C一般是特性不很同样的2件事。假如你要说的是Mr. A 能吃又能喝,就最好是不能用这构造。假如你想说Mr. A能办理他的技术专业工作中又能参于街边斗争,能够考虑到用之上构造。

  3. right values 恰当的价值观念。

下面是续篇:

范例的题型:

Seeing the rise in protesting activities in Hong Kong, some people are worried that Hong Kong may become a violent city, while others are supportive of the protestors. Write a letter to the Young Post stating your views on the issue. Sign your name 'Chris Wong'

范例的文章正文:

原文中的modal verbs用了鲜红色粗字体,用于调节语调的-ly adverbs用了深蓝色,都和写好议论文的三种方式相关,会在文后较详尽地谈。

似乎题型,比如题型尤其规定讨论科学馆的事,开始能够那样写。但是,考题大部分不容易想要你写某些恶性事件(isolated incident)。

Dear Editor,

I am writing to state my views on the scuffles1 at the Science Museum2 during the consultation forums3 on September 1 on the government’s plan to scrap Legislative Council by-elections4.

Some social sectors4a condemn the protestors for forcing open the doors5 of the venue and leading to the scuffles. They consider the incident a sign warning of a possible deterioration of Hong Kong into a violent city. (或是They warn of a possible deterioration6 of Hong Kong into a city of violence.)

假如考题紧紧围绕「友谊」与「暴力行为」,能够那样写:

Dear Editor,

I am writing to state my views on the increasing acts of protests by political parties and grass-roots organizations in Hong Kong, which are considered / alleged as7 violent by some social sectors.

The pro-establishment camp8 condemns the activists for staging sits-in8a, trying to pulling down security barricades9a and scuffling with the police. They consider such acts to be signs warning of a possible deterioration of Hong Kong into a violent city. (或是They warn of a possible deterioration of Hong Kong into a city of violence.)

Personally9, I don't think Hong Kong has got to that stage. Putting all the blame on protestors is rather one-sided10. Demonstration is generally11 a manifestation of social grievance12, and we should explore the causes behind13. Some questions can help our understanding of the issue14(或Some questions may help us understand the issue.). Why hasn't the government had sufficient consultation with us before deciding on its policy? What makes people who are otherwise placid take to the streets?15 Is there any abuse of police power16? Do the police use pepper spray arbitrarily? Isn't it an insult to peaceful protestors to handcuff them?18

Opinion surveys19 have shown that the approval rate for the government has kept falling / has reached an all-time nadir of [․ ] , attributable21 to a number of government policies which have fuelled social inequality22 and triggered mounting social discontent23. Indeed, we cannot help questioning24 whether the government has done its best to be as equitable and reasonable as it is supposed to be25.

There's no denying26 that some citizens are dissatisfied and want their voices to be heard. Unquestionably, they are angry about the government's lack of long-term plans, incompetence in dealing with the widening wealth gap27, and attempts to scrap Legislative Council by-elections / attempts to reverse Hong Kong's nascent democracy28 / reluctance to promote genuine universal suffrage29.

One could say that people take to the streets30 because they are dissatisfied. They evidently want their voices to be heard. Their dissatisfaction may have culminated into a variety of behavioural reactions. They stage street protests31 and sit-ins32 in an attempt to arouse the attention of society33. They want to make the government feel the pressure34 and alert the government to their problems35. And they do not mean to harm anyone36. (或Thus, one may conclude that they do not mean to harm anyone.)

Unruly elements37 who commit crimes in the name of protests38 should, of course, be punished by law. That said39, we should admit that Hong Kong people may be the most peaceful in parading40 and that some chaotic scenes41 and minor scuffles42 are common in protesting activities all over the world. The government should not be afraid of such acts; the police should not try to suppress them. Suppression and attempts to enlarge upon/to amplify the alleged “violence” of Hongkongers who try to voice their views43 will inevitably further alienate44 them. Instead, the Chief Executive and all Bureau heads45 should humbly46 listen and respond to47 their requests.47

To seek fundamental solutions to our social conflicts, we definitely need a re-think on48 the acts and feelings of the people! I genuinely believe that, by doing things differently, not only can the government improve its image substantially and win significant support, but it can also bring us a fairer society49.  We certainly need a government with the right values50.

Chris Wong

第二一部分:写好argumentative essays的三种輔助方式

下列要谈协助大家写好argumentative essay的三种輔助方式。第一种方式是用modal (auxiliary) word调节语调→话到口边留一句!

请先较为这几句:


  1. Soaring rents in Hong Kong bring pressure on certain commercial sectors. (假如你那样写,你的意思是如今早已产生工作压力(bring pressure on)。)


  2. Soaring rents in Hong Kong will bring pressure on certain commercial sectors. (假如你那样写,你的意思是可能产生工作压力(bring pressure on)。)


●问:为什么第二句要用will?

●答:We often need to make predictions or judgments in writing argumentative essays。写议论文(或写议论句)时,通常要明确提出展望(实际上就是你自身的分辨),但大家不容易每一次都说I opine that / In my view / I think that,有时候大家会将自身的念头用modal expressions 表述(Model expressions 指will、must、might、can、could、would、should、ought to等),上文第二句用will,实际上并不是确实说「会」产生,只是用will来表明你要表述你「相信可能造成 」产生。

●再看一下下列一两句。


  1. Soaring rents in Hong Kong will bring pressure on certain commercial sectors.(你一直在分辨,你一直在说你「相信可能产生工作压力」。)


  2. Soaring rents in Hong Kong, then, will bring pressure on certain commercial sectors.(then写不写还可以)


  3. Soaring rents in Hong Kong would bring pressure on certain commercial sectors. (你一直在说「可能产生工作压力」。)


  4. Soaring rents in Hong Kong may bring pressure on certain commercial sectors. (你一直在说「很有可能产生工作压力」。)


  5. Soaring rents in Hong Kong can bring pressure on certain commercial sectors. (你一直在说「能够产生工作压力」。)


  6. Soaring rents in Hong Kong could bring pressure on certain commercial sectors. (你一直在说「或许能够产生工作压力」(弱)。)


  7. Soaring rents in Hong Kong might bring pressure on certain commercial sectors. (你一直在说「或许很有可能产生工作压力」(弱)。)


  8. A consequence of soaring rents in Hong Kong should be increasing pressure on certain commercial sectors. (你一直在说「一个結果应该是产生工作压力」。)


以上的写法叫hedging(稍作相抵的书写/话到口边留一句),比如,你仅仅说might/could bring pressure on,沒有将观点说得太死, 你的argument较难露出破绽,看起来更有效、更入耳。

第二种方式是用-ly adverbs调节语调和稍加保存→也是话到口边留一句!

稍加保存语调的adverbs:

Apparently(apparently 的含意常让人搞混,它有时候解作「显而易见」(很毫无疑问一样),但大量状况下解作「从表层上看」。因此,假如你觉得Apparently it's going to rain。实际上你不是很毫无疑问会going to rain,你仅仅从你所闻的状况分辨会going to rain。) / arguably(这个字解作「有原因论述说」,疑惑作「能够争执」) / broadly / evidently / frequently / generally / genuinely / justifiably / likely / normally / partially / personally /possibly /probably / roughly / seemingly / surely / typically / usually

一些prepositional phrases 和别的expressions也可以为语调作保存:

As a (general) rule / broadly speaking / generally speaking / in a sense / in a way / in most cases / in the majority of cases / in principle / in some senses / in some respects / in many respects / more or less / roughly speaking

此外,本来就是你自身得话,你能无需I active voice,而代之以It 构造,例:I think that freedom of expression is an essential element of modern society 改成It is claimed that / It is said that freedom of expression is an essential element of modern society.

相近的expressions 也有it is (widely) accepted / it is believed / it is said / it has been said / it is generally agreed / it is claimed / it has been claimed / it is suggested / it has been suggested / it is tacitly assumed。

还能够用subject be past participle to的构造,比如:你能不写I believe that prostitution has existed since ancient times,而写Prostitution is believed to have existed since ancient times. 你又可以不写In my view , corruption is a major obstacle to reform,而写Corruption is said to be a major obstacle to reform.

这种构造包含:be believed to / be claimed to / be considered to / be found to / be said to / be seen to / be shown to / be thought to

第三种方式是用-ly adverbs调节语调,但并不是稍加保存,只是提升毫无疑问,但你用的情况下,最先要毫无疑问你的话确实沒有漏洞,比如是一些很「大道」得话,像:Obviously , we should not condone any disruption to law and order(大家显著不可忍受毁坏社会治安的个人行为。). 或是Unquestionably, we should not tolerate any collusion between officials and businessmen(无庸置疑,我们不应忍受贪官污吏。)。

提升毫无疑问语调的adverbs:

Categorically(断然地)/ certainly / clearly / definitely / emphatically / indisputably / inevitably / irrefutably (让人没法辩驳地)/ observably / obviously / plainly / undeniably / undoubtedly / unquestionably

要提升语调,还会有这种expressions:

for sure / for certain

it is /was clear/obvious/indisputable/undeniable that

there is/was no doubt that

without doubt

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