社会科学作业代写 Social Science Research Paper

Social Science Research Paper

社会科学作业代写 Maiese (2005) distinguishes two kinds of wisdom systems: (i) professional or specific knowledge dependent on the expertise of

Introduction  社会科学作业代写

Housing is a national economic stimulant which has both social and psychological impacts on human productivity and social welfare. It is a concrete frame used by people to shelter the environment, including the facilities and equipment needed to resolve households' physical, emotional, medical and social needs (Olatubara, 2007). But accommodation alone without the basic infrastructural infrastructure required to make it available, safe and convenient, cannot and cannot fulfil its core objectives properly.

Various problems have occurred in the course of executing the work of the project (planning, mobilisation, execution and management). Conflict incidence is reduced only where citizens can practise a high degree of empathy, sacrifice, preventing and solidarity at all stages of the creation of community-led programmes.

The Concept and Theory of Conflict

The Latino term "confligere" means "to hit together," is used to describe the word "conflict" (Aluko, 2014). The word "strife, war, fight, dispute, conflict, quarrel or disagreement between or between two or more individuals, parties, classes, cultures on matters of their contradictory interests," Egunjobi and Adams (2015: 207) defines the term. Conflict means a conflict or war between people or organizations. The word conflict means conflict.  社会科学作业代写

It is normally defined by a violation of peace or compromise between the parties. Conflict is an inherent and natural feature of human life (David, 2007) and an anti-social opposition. Ropers (2002) points out that tensions are an inherent corollary of co-existence and societal progress in all cultures. Two types of conflicts are defined by Swickel (2001): substantive and personal conflicts, including atmospheric, personality and meaning, word use and non-verbal conflicts. Thus, economic wealth, control, politics, human existence, faith, philosophy, destruction, environmental harm, competitive development, science and technology are all sources of confrontation.


Housing and its relationship with Conflict  社会科学作业代写

Housing and confrontation are closely related (Wahab and Odetokun, 2014). Adequate residential accommodation, whether it requires security from confrontation or abuse, is central to the socio psychological, economic and physical well being of individuals. Conflicts emerge from the intimate relationships between tenants and landlords (Holders, Olusola, 2009; Kehinde, 2010; Kolugo, 2010), as well as between lands and landlords (Agbola and Kassim, 2007; Awodiran, 2008).

Conflicts also occur among housing professionals (Agbola and Kassim, 2007). The craftsmen/craftsmen and developers clash each point in the process of housing growth. There are conflicts in the supervision and use of building materials, material stealing, time of construction, deployment of workers, and non-compliance with, among other items, an accepted architectural plan. In day-to-day ties between and among its inhabitants, housing plays a major role.

It typically offers accommodation, protection, health and mental fulfilment, as well as promotes solidarity and fraternity. It also creates opportunities to create social tension between families as accommodation is rapidly insufficient in quality or quantity. The lack of upkeep and the lack or insufficient provision of basic utilities by both landowners and tenants is one of the key reasons for the friction that sometimes causes volatile linkage between landowners and residents.  社会科学作业代写

Environment disputes between estate residents are: removing blocked rivers and canals, retaining dumps of urban waste, repairing collapsed culverts, and reorganising collector highways and local streets. When housing is provided with ample basic infrastructural services, there would be less tension between and between residents created by housing. In the case of proper accommodation, they are shielded from a dispute as Agbola and Kassim (2007) observes.

Conflict and Community-driven Development Projects

The top-level decision-making groups want to rule. There still compete and compete for recognition from municipal authorities. Creation should be regarded as an appropriate local process (Webster, 1990 cited in Dipholo, 2002). Local process should be defined. Any building scheme except the recipients would certainly collapse. In the field of physical and group development, friction is comparatively recent. More and more recent confrontation research have been performed in growth science (Macartan and Ashutosh, 2004). Faleti (2006) found that in the community creation phase, the confrontation typically aims at the establishment and cooperation of groups along the social divide.

A participatory community-based mechanism is an approach that ensures that community-based facilities and end-users engage actively, acceptably and sustainably at any point of the project (Wahab, 2006). The approach includes the inclusive involvement of residents, end consumers, and at times external partners interested in creating an initiative or a service to transform their lives (Jennings, 2000). The CD is characterised as a mechanism by which community members come together in collaborative action to create solutions for common problems" (Frank and Smith (1999:10) were specified differently in their literature. Pat describes CD as the level of influence communities to plan, create, enforce and sustain efficient community services that influence the social and economic stability of their individuals and groups.  社会科学作业代写

The community change is a collective initiative, mechanism, strategy and programme that includes all of the communities and that aims to change their physical, economic and cultural circumstances (Wahab, 2006).  社会科学作业代写

community development Thus, individuals in residential collectivities are grouped into cooperative society and/or collective interest groups, for example, neighbourhood improvement societies, homeowner associations, landlord organisations, tenant organisations, unit residential areas and community development programmes, for example, road maintenance and upgrades, permanent residential areas.

Communal development organisations, each dry season in Moniya and the residential communities of Orogun in Ibadan, provide and manage power transformers, boreholes, toilets and policing and access roads. Project committees have however conflicted with the members of the group because of their inadequate participation in the upkeep of infrastructure and the non-payment of the maintenance levies. People complained of lack of knowledge and prejudicial position in project committees.

CDD is constantly being used in contemporary communities worldwide to help create links between the state and its residents, employers and workers, and even to promote mutual solidarity between people living in residential properties where individuals and social classes are separated. CDD requires community development and community organisation, whereby individuals and groups of people may learn the expertise they need to make the difference in their respective communities, to successfully achieve its goals (World Bank 2007). Leadership, consensus and strategy rely on the progress of the CDD programme.  社会科学作业代写

Planning aims to directly alter collective priorities and provides an organised mechanism to be adopted by project planners (Lapping et al. 1989). The sustainable CDD process involves three steps of realistic progress: the development project beneficiaries must contribute more at the design level, local expertise must be used properly and the ability of the public to access social impacts from policies and investments must be improved (Serageldin, 1993). In any or all stages of project creation, the non-participation of the group members regular disputes that must be settled in a respectful way for peaceful co-existence.

Causes and Effects of Conflict  社会科学作业代写

Different factors as sources of the dispute have been established. Conflicts have systemic and proximate causes that affect apparent behaviour (Obegi and Nyamboga, 2008). Action is obvious. Namande (2008) notes that any unhappiness causes will raise people's chances of confrontation and can include resource difficulty, egocentrism, ethnocentrism, racism, assertion, acceptance, ignorance, confidence and terror. Albert (2005) outlines insufficient resource rivalry causes that cause confrontation. These include: contradicting ideals, moral views, ideological positions and a general understanding of the world of the parties involved; psychology and the management of knowledge and people's psychological needs (Albert, 2005:4-5 quoted in Alouko, 2014:335-336).  社会科学作业代写

Egunjobi and Adams (2015:208) identified: territorial existence of natural resources; loss of resources; utilisation of resources and share of resources relative inaccessible; and natural disasters and/or disasters triggered by human resources. Internet Mediator (2009) classifies conflict in five groups, each with its specific causes, which are relationships, records, preferences, institutional and value disputes. The presence of strong negative feelings, prejudices, bad interactions and/or miscommunications or repeated negative behaviour triggers relationship problems.

Data problems happen where there is a lack of knowledge required to make sensible decisions, a lack of information about the data applicable to them a disparity in understanding of the information or conflicting measurement procedures. Conflicts of interest emerge from competitiveness over presumed conflicting desires, while conflicts of interest arise when one or more of the parties think that the rights and preferences of the adversary should be ignored to meet their needs. Structural disputes arise from powers outside the contested population, whereas conflicts of value are triggered by suspected or real conflicting values.

Structural inequality can also lead to tensions like the rich-poor divide, urban distortions and poor governance (Andreas & Claude 2000).

Structural influences are established as core sources of disputes in construction policy debates (Ropers, 2002). Okoye et al. (2010) suggest that the formation of human ideology and relationships desirable in wars. They argue that conflict never takes place without negative consequences, that also threaten civilization and undermine specific human development goals. These challenges may include influenza, malnutrition, poverty, high death rates and property loss. Conflicts lead both participants to explain their needs and principles for themselves and also allow them to recognise more than conflicts provide a means to shared change, empowerment and growth (Bigdon & Benedikt, 2004 quoted in Bush and Folger, 1994).

In Ifako Ijaye State Lagos Local Government District, Awodiran (2008] describes the causes of dispute in landlord/tenant and tenant relations: unsatisfactory services, default on electricity bills, protection and construction fees, repair problems, domestic squeak and resident sentence. Olusola (2009) also described the causes of conflict as the failure of landlords to maintain buildings and their installations by landlords, the improper use by tenants, of housing infrastructure leading to blocked drains, damaged electric poles, breakage of entry gates, and the unwillingness of lentors. The results are presented at the conference in the Ajegunle area of Lagos.

Conflict Resolution Methods

Because of its constant existence in daily life, confrontation seems to have become a perpetual part of human life that we are always able to live and work with and overcome. With the participation of scientists like Namande (2008); Obegi and Nyamboga (2008), their presence cannot be finished in the human life, they have theorised and conceptualised disputes and ways of settlement rather than cessation. Therefore it should be settled amicably where and when there has been a disagreement so that the participating parties should be at harmony with each other.

Well-managed and settled disputes will contribute to peace and prosperity in cities especially residential areas, and their components. However, in situations where nonviolent action is not effective, grievous groups use violent means, as in the case of Niger Delta activists who have mobilised protests, civil disobedience and the military battle to seek economic and social justice (Ikporukpo, 2014).

Conflict is an extremely complex process involving an in-depth understanding of how to manage or overcome it constructively and not destructively (Maiese, 2005).  社会科学作业代写

Maiese (2005) distinguishes two kinds of wisdom systems: (i) professional or specific knowledge dependent on the expertise of interpretation, examination and implementation and learned from research; (ii) folks or tacit knowledge that applies to the daily understanding of common sense, perception and personal experience (Osamba (2001). As Robinson (2009:145) adds to the dispute resolution debate, "conflict is a mother of creativity and creativity a method of conflict resolution," which allows persons and organizations to think about a settlement to the conflict peacefully. This research is focused on dispute resolution (CR) and focuses on ending conflict without external interference.  社会科学作业代写

It is a set of methods used in conflict management by constructively addressing challenges that are different from conflict management or change. CR prefers conflict prevention to avoid armed conflict escalating, but not conflict itself. Ending a dispute is a possible solution and/or balancing of opponents' interests as stated by Andreas and Claud (2000). Deutsch (1973) defines the essence of the dispute and objectives that are aimed at by each party as two main factors to settle disputes which decide the kind of path that a party will take to the negotiations table (whether competitive or cooperative). Cooperation between parties will invoke an environment of confidence and lead ultimately to mutually favourable mediation options.

Concurrent methods which are usually considered disruptive, on the other hand, lead to unwinding effects, but would possibly increase hostility and mistrust among parties (Deutsch, 1973). The five conflict-management models of conflict handling with two essential aspects, assertiveness and co-operativeness: accommodation; preventing the dilemma by failing to behave assertively; negotiating with the other side to find a "win-win" situation; fighting, and compromising; Thomas and Kilmann (2010) extended Deutsch' work into what is called the Thomas Kilmann conflict-mode instrument.

To be effective in dispute resolution, the reflective discussion is required in which parties to conflict talk freely in the presence of their opponents about their needs and values (Bigdon and Benedikt 2004).

Five steps toward CR that must be taken cautiously by a mediator for successful exercise are identified by the American Management Association (2014): defining the root of the conflict; looking past the incident; ask for disputant remedies; define solutions that disputants should provide; get disputing parties to commit to the recommended solutions. The attempts to settle disputes would also work if both parties prosper equally (e.g. win-win), but exceedingly difficultly where there are win-win (e.g. win-loos) benefits for one side.

However the parties may be inspired to achieve a win-win solution, should there be a willingness to compromise on shared goals or to obtain equal share of resources. Integrative negotiation or interactive problem resolution may be necessary in CR methods. In Ronald (1997), inclusive negotiations are described as a mechanism of negotiations that depends on the merit of issues. Integrative negotiation calls for compromise and for mutually beneficial options to be found (Jack et al. 1998).  社会科学作业代写

Shedrack (2006), stated in Miller (2003), notes that multi-media techniques have been used in different contexts and that they are concerned with resolving the conventional African dispute, the West Alternative Dispute (WADR), and the conventional African Dispute. Eguniobi and Adams (2015), as a methodologic for prevention of environmental and physical conflict induced by planning and physical planning, proposed the application of planning measures such as layout designs and spaces, (master) development plans, land use and development control rules.

Shedrack's (2007) strategies cover grassroots group gatherings, collaboration, good governance, networking, advising, mediating, conciliating, adjudicating and conflict-management.  社会科学作业代写

Dzurgba (2010) attaches belief, dialogue and workshop. In his book "Narrative mode" (1990), Bruner introduces the method of CR that telling storeys between rivals will help parties strive to resolve wounds and turn disputes. Facilitation, dialoguing, consultation, collaborations, early neutral assessment, ombudsman and litigation as other methods of CR are described by Egunjobi and Adams (2015).

Disputants, however, prefer non-litigious conflict mediation methods in a voluntary, discreet and non-coercive process as a result of the risks of arbitration and friendly resolution. Bush and Folger (1994) emphasise mediation as a productive and effective settlement of conflicts since they use constructive and equitable methods to reach outcomes with winners that address both parties' needs. The advantages of mediation are known as versatility, informality, agreement, economic and emotional cost mitigation.


It is necessary not only to resolve public and private housing in order to sustain public peace and order but also to promote positive civic engagement with people and tackle the problem of successful conflict resolution solutions. Although this is not routinely correlated with community-based services, any form of confrontation between people must be settled quickly by neighbours, and if not, until this disagreement, the elders must degenerate into abuse. Residents should work hard to build mutually beneficial relations, sincere goodwill and empathy, unity and respect regardless of age, educational situation, wealth, race and religion.




References  社会科学作业代写

Abdul-Jelil, A.G. (2008).: Introduction to conflict transformation. Olaniyi, R. O. (Ed.). Introduction to Conflict Transformation PCR274. Abuja: National Open University of Nigeria.

Adeyemo, O.I. (2008). The role and effectiveness of landlords-tenants association in the maintenance of housing facilities: A case study of Ibadan North local government area, Ibadan, Oyo State. Unpublished M.Sc Dissertation, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan.

Adeyeye, L.A. (2010). Understanding Development Control and Settlement of Disputes. Ile-Ife; Timade Ventures.  社会科学作业代写

Agbola, T., Egunjobi, L. & Olatubara, C. O. (2007). Preface. In T. Agbola, L. Egunjobi, & C. O. Olatubara (Eds.), Housing development and management: A book of readings (pp. vii-xii). Ibadan: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan.

Agbola, T., & Kassim, F. (2007). Conceptual and theoretical issues in housing. In T. Agbola, L. Egunjobi, & C. O. Olatubara (Eds.), Housing development and management: A book of readings (pp. 15-69). Ibadan: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan.

Aihie, O. N. (2009, May). Prevalence of domestic violence in Nigeria: Implications for counselling. Edo Journal of Counselling, 2(1). Retrieved from http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejc/article/view/52648

Ajayi, K. (2014). Boundary disputes and challenges to regional peace: Nigeria’s agitational appeal against ICJ’s verdict on Bakassi Pennisula. Peace Studies and Practice, Journal of the Society of Peace Studies and Practice, Vol. 1, No. 3, March, pp. 153-172.

Albert, I.O. (2001). Introduction to third party intervention in community conflicts. Ibadan: John Archers Publishers Limited.

Albert, I. O. (2003). Mainstreaming: Positive leadership in conflict transformation in Nigeria. Lagos: Centre for Social Science Research and Development (CSSR&D). Monograph Series. No 7. April 21, 2007: Forest Conflict in Asia United States Agency for International Development.

Aluko, B. A. (2014). Understanding the essentials of conflict analysis. Peace Studies and Practice- Journal of the Society of Peace studies and Practice, Vol. 1, No. 3, March, pp. 331-344.

American Management Association (2014). ‘The Five Steps to Conflict Resolution’. Accessed on 12 August, 2015  社会科学作业代写

Amman, M. H. & Duraiappah, A. K. (2011). Land Tenure and Conflict resolution: A Game Theoretic Approach in the Narok district in Kenya”. International institute for Environment and Development, London, and Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam. CREED Working paper Series No. 37.

Egunjobi, L. & Adams, A. (2015). Conflicts. In Egunjobi L. (Ed.), Contemporary Concepts in Physical Planning. Pp. 205-221. Ibadan: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan.

Faleti, S. (2006), Theories of Social Conflict. In Shedrack, G. B. (Ed.), Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa: A Reader (pp. 35-60). Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.

Fisher, S, Ludin, J., Williams, S, Abdi, D.I., Smith R., and Williams, S. (2000). Working with conflict: skills and strategies for Action. London: Zed Books.

Frank, F. & Smith, A. (1999).: The community development handbook: A tool to build community capacity. Quebec: Human Resources Development Canada.

Galtung, I. (1996). Peace by Peaceful Means Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilisation London. Sage Publications.  社会科学作业代写

Guleid, A. A. (2007). History of conflict among the pastoralists in Eastern Africa and the role of traditional conflict resolution mechanisms. In W. G. C. Smidt, & K. Abraham (Eds.), Discussing conflict in Ethiopia: Conflict management and resolution (pp. 14-22). Zurich: LIT Verlag GmbH & Co.KGWien.

Heinz-Jurgen A, Jean, M., Heinz-Jurgen, A., Antonio, M., & Oliver, S. (2006). Conflict –a literature review. Duisburg, 23rd February. ESSEN, Institute of Political Science, University of Duisburg.

Herbert C. K. (2005). Interactive problem solving in the Israeli-Palestinian Case: past contributions and present challenges. In R. Fisher (Ed.), Paving the way: Contributions of interactive conflict resolution to peacemaking. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books: 2-28.


更多代写:cs代写    计量经济代考   机器学习代写      r语言代写  商法paper代写