Social Policy Literature Review
社会学report代写 According to McFarlane et al. (2002), research is missing to ascertain the effectiveness of policy issues seeking to protect..
The level of violence against married women immigrant significantly high but unknown. 社会学report代写
According to McFarlane et al. (2002), research is missing to ascertain the effectiveness of policy issues seeking to protect intimate immigrant women in the United States. They found that level of women reporting cases of domestic violence increased significantly. There is significant differences in domestic violence between immigrant and U.S-born white women.
However, the variations occurred in the economic and social empowerment in both groups. Immigrants women was found to be less educated, earn low income, and lacked English proficiency (2002). Some spouses were found to deny women freedom to advance their education. Nonetheless, the protection order or reporting violent spouse was found effect in reducing the number of domestic violence.
根据McFarlane等人的说法。 （2002年），缺少研究来确定旨在保护美国亲密移民妇女的政策问题的有效性。 他们发现报告家庭暴力案件的妇女人数大大增加。 移民和美国出生的白人妇女之间在家庭暴力方面存在重大差异。
但是，两组在经济和社会赋权方面都存在差异。 人们发现，移民妇女的文化程度较低，收入较低且缺乏英语水平（2002年）。 发现某些配偶剥夺了妇女继续接受教育的自由。 但是，发现保护令或举报暴力配偶可以减少家庭暴力。
Although protective orders were valid on reducing the level of violence against women,
they did not serve the purpose of discouraging and eliminating domestic violence. Criminalization of domestic violence was necessary to address the shortcomings with protective orders (Danis, 2003). Making violation of protective law a crime was not sufficient because the offender was only given probational sentencing or fines and hence did not have impact to show domestic violence is a crime.
Due to the complexity of local cases, social workers have the role of providing the best justice intervention and options available to clients. Danis (2003) found that there is not perfect intervention tool or method to pursue justice for the victims. Therefore, it is the role of social workers to come up with the best intervention measures for each situation.英国essay代写
However, some technicalities need to be understood regarding domestic violence interventions by the police and social workers. The modern constitution of domestic violence has changed from heterosexual to include homosexuals and people living under the same roof (Watkins, 2005). Age has also become a consideration the decision of domestic violence to gauge the party behaviors and the cause of violence.
For instance, a parent disciplining a child who is under the age of 13 years is not violence considering it was done for the best interest of the child. However, there are cases that the parent or guardian inflicts punishments or threats that can be regarded as violent. Also, in some cases the victim may have contributed to the violence,
and hence both parties are victims and offenders, or the victim becomes the offender after realization that its facts were misrepresented (2005). It is, therefore, the role of police and social workers to understand all circumstances surrounding the cases to come up with the most effective and just measure.
it is critical to understand the context of domestic violence, particularly those affecting women immigrants to offer practical solutions. According to Bhuyan and Senturia (2005), women's response to domestic violence is dependent on their cultural factors related to language, religious beliefs, traditional help-seeking behavior,
composition of social networks, and degrees of acculturation. Bhuyan and Senturia (2005) observed that women immigrants come with their history, social status, and cultural practices from their community of origin. Due to these variations, which are further affected by the resources supports, social supports, legal immigration status,
as well as knowledge of their rights, affect how women respond to domestic violence or available options. It is the role of police and social workers to work towards facilitating better life of both parties by considering the choices they have and personal and their community characteristics shape them.
the application of culturally sensitive interventions to domestic violence can be a practical approach, especially among Latino communities. Hancock and Siu (2008) noted that United States is a culturally diverse country that having one unified preventive measure cannot work. The reason being each family or couple is distinct as individuals.
Men are the most affected immigrants who seem to deal with domestic issues as per their cultural practices that see men domineer their wives. On the other hand, women, mainly from Latino, were found to be not sensitive to domestic violence since their culture condone such behavior.
Thus, using conventional or set approach to reducing violence was found weak to deal with domestic violence and was faced with resistance particularly from Latino men. Instead, policy implementation together with police and social workers should work towards integrating cultural values and practices when creating interventions or mitigation measures against domestic violence against immigrant women.社会学report代写
将文化敏感的干预措施应用于家庭暴力可能是一种实用的方法，尤其是在拉丁裔社区中。 Hancock and Siu（2008）指出，美国是一个文化多元化的国家，只有一种统一的预防措施是行不通的。每个家庭或夫妻之所以作为个人是不同的。
it is essential to consider the attitude that various racial backgrounds and cultures have towards domestic violence. It is found that the level of inculcation, education, and immigrant’s social and economic status were critical determinants of the attitude towards domestic violence among Asian ethnic groups living in the United States (Kim-Goh, 2008).
Older generations seemed to less favor alternative domestic disputes and preferred wife battering. The same case was observed on male counterparts and less educated who were for the opinion that a wife should be disciplined for infidelity or any severe issues in the family that is wife’s fault (2008). Also, the status of women socially and economically contributed to possibility of domestic violence.
Those women with lower education, social inactive, and poor language communication were found to be at higher risk of domestic violence and were accommodative of violent partners than those with who are economically empowered and have better education (2008). Therefore, besides culturally accommodative interventions, there is need to have civic education to the less inculcated immigrants in the bid to reduce violence.
Besides cultural, educational
economic and social issues, there exist structural problems that impact on domestic violence. The police reporting behavior was found to be critical underlying factor in the effectiveness of reducing domestic violence. Police were found to be influenced by the age of the victim, race, social-economic status, marital status and severity of the violence.
For instance, if the victim is a black woman cohabiting with a white man, the reporting and action of the police may disregard her naïve woman without morals and hence fail to pursue the case. The victim may also hesitate to report with the anticipation of such skewed judgment by the police. It is essential for law enforcement,
and other agencies working towards the rights and equal treatment of women understand the underlying structural problems to device effective measures to domestic violence.
Regarding various factors that affect police decision making 社会学report代写
Drown (2008) found the need for exposition training of police on discretionary decision-making on matters domestic violence. The absence of such training has failed the system of enacting protective orders and criminalizing domestic offenders.
There should be policies that guide the police on dealing with issues of domestic violence rather than leaving them with more discretionary decisions to make. The guide will help the police as well as social workers on reporting mechanisms that are unbiased and oriented to achieving justice for all.
Moreover, governments should have programs intended to prevent domestic violence in immigrant communities. According to Simbandumwe, Bailey, Denetto, Migliardi, Bacon, and Nighswander (2008), several methods can be used to prevent violence in intercultural communities. Some of the ways include civic education programs, women programs,
此外，政府应制定旨在防止移民社区发生家庭暴力的计划。 根据Simbandumwe，Bailey，Denetto，Migliardi，Bacon和Nighswander（2008）的研究，可以使用几种方法来防止跨文化社区的暴力行为。 其中一些方法包括公民教育计划，妇女计划，
and community leadership engagement.
Also, the authors noted culturally sensitive programs, building of community values and norms, as well as development of positive family relationships contribute to intercommunal domestic violence prevention. They found that economic stressors and cultural factors as the main contributors to domestic violence (2008). Therefore,
increasing the number of participation in family programs will work to reduce the rate of domestic violence.
Therefore, it is critical for the expansion of the intersectional paradigm in the understanding of domestic violence. A study by Sokoloff (2008) argues that immigrants, in general, are not alike, and they vary according to their social locations at the intersection of the hierarchies of race, class, gender, sexuality, ethnicity,
and immigrant status. Thus, there was need to analyze the many cases of violence against women to shed more light on their experiences as well as differences and similarities about those experiences. The evaluation of women's violence will also help in the inquiry about the methods these women use in dealing with abusive husbands.
Sokoloff (2008) found that since there are many ethnic groups in U.S. 社会学report代写
there exist variations in the levels of violence and responses to violence. For instance, a woman from Asia experienced different battery compared to those of African origin. The perception of domestic violence between Asians and African America varied. Thus, social policies should be developed based on these differences and perspectives.
The empowerment programs that came to address the issues of domestic violence need to be evaluated for their effectiveness. Kasturirangan, A. (2008) found that these programs have not fully achieved their intended goals. The policies fail to define what entails women empowerment and do not address the plights of domestic violence victims. For example,
domestic violence does affect not only women but also children from the family. The law should address the empowerment of these women and children survivors to restore them to normal conditions through counseling and financial support. Additionally, Kulwicki, Aswad, and Carmona (2010) observed that the law should address the barriers that inhibit women from freeing themselves from abusive relationships.
Some of the obstacles that were identified include social
economic and religion, culture, family and personal resources affect. Therefore, policies should focus on empowering women immigrants to deal with some of these issues that limit them in accessing justice after domestic violence.
Besides the application of law by criminalizing the perpetrator of domestic violence, Temporary Restraining Order was also considered necessary to protect the victims of abuse. The orders can be used as alternative dispute resolution between the married couples so that they can rethink their options on the relationship.
Van Rooij, Ten Haaf, and Verhoeff (2013) found that some violent victims prefer TRO over the course system which can result in sentencing and permanent separation or divorce. Retraining one partner from accessing the other was found to be effective in reducing repeated assaults at homes. Thus, TRO is a good alternative rather than filing criminal case against a partner.
However, the laws and policies for domestic violence would not be successful without adequate support intervention of the victims (Seridel, 2016). Many women indeed choose to stay in abusive marriage due to lack of better survival options. Notably, most women are dependent on men for a living,
Van Rooij，Ten Haaf和Verhoeff（2013）发现，一些暴力受害人更喜欢TRO，而不是课程体系，这可能导致量刑，永久分居或离婚。人们发现，对一个伙伴进行再培训以使其免于接触另一方可有效减少在家中反复受到的袭击。因此，TRO而不是对伴侣提起刑事诉讼，是一个很好的选择。
and hence any exit from the house means they are nothing on their own especially if they have children.
The government should have intervention mechanisms that address social and housing needs of these families. However, these interventions were found to be discriminative against low-income fathers Hayward, Honegger, and Hammock (2017). Fathers need to be involved in the interventions aimed at improving family.
Therefore, in as far many programs aim to address the plight of women in domestic violence, these policies need to shift the focus on the role of a father in reducing domestic violence.