Following the Supreme Court of Canada 1988 decision
留学essay代做 Women are submissive to her husband. However, the role of the husband was defined as the one who provides and protects.
Question 1 留学essay代做
Violence-based masculinity and whiteness all come under right-wing extremism which is being largely neglected by the authorities in the US as well as in Canada including many other European nations. As mentioned in the article US Department of Homeland Security first released the assessment report on right-wing extremism entitled, “Rightwing Extremism: Current Economic and Political Climate Fueling Resurgence in Radicalization and Recruitment” which was removed later on from every law enforcement and intelligence database.
The same trend pervades Canada. Right-wing extremism is absent from the public agenda in many countries including Canada. According to the authorities and social organizations such as Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), white supremacist activity and right-wing terrorism is far more prevalent than Islamic fundamentalism which is usually given more coverage than right-wing activities. 留学essay代做
Jackson Katz's view can be explained by the post 9/11 circumstances which made every individual with brown skin or every Muslim a terrorist. The white domestic terrorist such as Timothy McVeigh was starkly ignored. This is what Katz wants to explain here that women or men of color when act violently is usually covered by media as terrorists, on the other hand, white supremacists got very little or no coverage by mainstream media.
Violent women are identified as a victim, mad or bad.
Some researchers who have tried making sense of the women’s violence stated that when women committed the violence that is considered to have breached two laws the first one is the law of land that does not permit any sort of violence and the other one is a natural law which depicts women as passive carers and not the ones who adopt violence. 留学essay代做
That is why when women commit a crime or adopt violence they are given more coverage by mainstream media by men. As mentioned by Hird, “society has a narrow about situating a violent woman.” Americans who are considered to be far-right as individuals or groups are characterized as a fiercely nationalistic, anti-global, supporters of individual liberty such as freedom of carrying guns and be free taxes. They are believers of conspiracy theory and think that their national sovereignty is always at risk.
They are always prepared for attack. They are the right-wing extremists, they adopt violence as they are xenophobic, racists. They are the masterminds of mass shootings, racial violence against men of color and women. But they are rendered better than violent women, and violent colored men who merely commit minor crimes but are covered vigorously by media (Perry & Scrivens, 2019; Comack & Brickey, 2007).
Question 3 留学essay代做
The two most important socio-political transformations that began during the fight against HIV /AIDS were when public health authorities started focusing on the wider public rather than just vulnerable groups to HIV (such as homosexual men and drug users). Secondly, the response of the state to HIV/AIDS as the implementation of criminal law started persecuting the individuals who were considered to be transmitting the virus knowingly to another person.
Thus, this law is being misused. As someone could be found guilty regardless of whether or not he or she has transmitted the virus to his or her sexual partner. Around 115 people faced the nondisclosure of HIV charges during a sexual encounter, thus they were charged for transmitting the virus purposely in Canada. In the 1990s, people were charged with creating obnoxious feelings and transmitting a deadly thing regardless of whether they really have transmitted HIV or not. 留学essay代做
Therefore, crimes become less severe but the criminal charges got aggravated.
Aggravated sexual assault was the most common charge. Thus, the law regarding the criminalization of HIV nondisclosure persecuted people with HIV/AIDS. This law of criminalizing nondisclosure turn every individual who is HIV positive into potential sexual offenders. The case of Diane further clarifies Patten and Symington’s perception regarding laws concerning HIV non-disclosure. Diane; a French-Canadian woman developed an intimate relationship with a man who met her at her Son’s soccer match. She told her that she is HIV positive after which he left her but they got back together and started living together.
After several years, he started abusing her. One day he broke her son’s hand upon defending his mother and beaten Diane violently. He was convicted for this violence but he falsely accused Diane that she did not disclose her HIV status and had unprotected sex with him. Diane was convicted falsely. This shows how the criminalization of HIV nondisclosure is being misused against people living with HIV. There are many other women like Diane and the majority of them are Indigenous with a history of physical abuse, alcoholism, poverty and drug addiction.
Another case of May is given who was convicted for nondisclosure and deported back to Thailand upon infecting her Canadian husband. May had a low level of literacy and she could not speak English she was oblivious of her status as nobody mentioned it on her immigration to Canada. Thus, she was falsely convicted (Patten & Symington; Kilty).
Question 4 留学essay代做
The traditional familial realities are still unequal and gendered in various respects. These gender-based legal assumptions come under the unity doctrine where women are assumed to be more responsible towards domestic labor and children. Feminists demand the equal treatment of fathers and oppose the gender-based legal norms as they lead to unequal social relations and put an extra burden on women affecting their health.
A new Family Law Act has been introduced which changed the post-separation parenting regulation. Marriage has become a contested terrain lately in Canada along with many other European nations. Gay and lesbian couples have lobbied for the right to get married stating that they require legal and social equality. According to the unity of doctrine, marriage has a special significance in religion, it is romantic as well sacred. It is considered a highly regarded relationship between man and woman. It was considered a heart of Canadian society.
The unity doctrine made the Canadian concede sexual relations, birth and childrearing only within the premises of marriage.
They set penalties for those who strayed including ostracism by the community and the church. These concepts of rewards and punishments made options other than marriage unthinkable. The doctrine of coverture described the roles of men and women profoundly. William Blackstone a renowned commentator on laws perceived that marriage makes husband and wife into one person the legal existence and the very being of the women is suspended when they get married and her existence is integrated into her husband, under whom she gets protection. 留学essay代做
Women are submissive to her husband. However, the role of the husband was defined as the one who provides and protects. The wife is solely responsible to sustain the marriage. Before the 20th century, marriage was embedded into legal traditions and religion. The unity doctrine made the Canadian government realize that the state does have business in the nation’s business. Thus they started implementing the gender-based legal regulation until a leader from the left-wing took the charge of the country like Pierre Elliott Trudeau.
Unity doctrine did not let the Canadian access the divorce depicting the fragility of the institution called marriage. The British Common Law made the families operate under strict patriarchal and hierarchical standards. This law stated that women have no rights to their property and children, thus children are the property of their fathers. These rules were power disincentive against women (Boyd; LENON).
Question 6 留学essay代做
In Canada, intimate partner violence constitutes nearly one-third of the reported crimes every year. According to victims, the legal system is complicating the efforts to eradicate this trend. One of such cases is of Susan who is so afraid of her ex-husband that she denied disclosing her identity in mainstream media. Susan was repeatedly assaulted by her husband who even tried to strangle her and threatened her to death.
However, he was found guilty for only one charge, he somehow drags out their divorce making Susan financially devastated that she eventually filed for bankruptcy. He claimed that her experience with the Canadian legal system was traumatic. Today, she even regrets reporting those incidents of violence by her husband. There are plenty of stories like that of Susan that indicate the fragility of the Canadian legal system and how it is exacerbating the IPV incidents.
One of the reasons behind this broken legal system of Canada regarding IPV was the existence of conflicting definitions of violence.
Moreover, it clearly states that the government of Canada does not have any overarching strategy to address the increasing incidence of family violence. According to Susan, some of the issues she has found in the Canadian legal system are communication failure, lacking clarity and staffing issues. These issues jeopardized her case and turned her vulnerable. For instance, Susan once shared with authorities that she shared her number with the police officer when she was assaulted she called on that number repeatedly but the police officer never bothers to answer. 留学essay代做
She also shared that it took her months to check in with her ex-probation officer. And when she learned that her husband has successfully petitioned the court to lift the restraining order she filed against her, it was already too late. Thus, Nneka MacGregor states that the criminal justice system regarding IPV is still debilitated and defective as it making women like Susan and many others suffer more than before. To end this violence against women men can play an active role in developing women's shelter and crisis centers for women.
The laws are needed to be reformed.
Even the men who do not use violence have turned blind eye to the range of issues and violence against women. This attitude needs to be changed. Moreover, men should not take a passive stance even though they never used violence themselves. Many men in North America are outspoken in supporting women who are taking part in movements against violence. Such men are highly appreciated by women in society.
Men's involvement in women’s organization has become necessary as they could play a crucial role in spreading the awareness among their male fellows about the women issues which emanate as a result of IPV. The impact of the women’s movement has a tremendous impact on Canada and made possible the creation of the White Ribbon (Kaufman; Nicholson, 2020).
Question 8 留学essay代做
The Canada Health Act and the Charter has become important for the pro-choice movement within the country. It was aided, again by the will of Dr. Morgentaler as well as other doctors to challenge federal and provincial abortion regulations. In 1984 the clinics were cleared of illegal providing abortions by a jury subsequently, the Ontario Government appealed this decision. When this happened, Morgentaler appealed this decision to the Supreme Court of Canada.
Then, in January 1988, the Supreme Court of Canada provided order in favor of Morgentaler, Smoling, Scott, and struck down law of abortion. The 1969 law neither assured access to abortion nor finished the debate of abortion. Following the Supreme Court of Canada 1988 decision, various provinces passed regulations to limit the access to abortion. Reproductive justice is a term that includes affordable contraceptives, equal access to safe abortion, comprehensive sex education, and freedom from the sexual violence.
It is not sufficient that abortion is legal in a state, therefore, today, the reproductive justice remain incomplete.
Subsequently, an Act of Genocide by Karen Stote explores the interference of state in the Indigenous women’s reproductive lives in Canada. Stote said that above 100 Indigenous women received insufficient anesthesia during the abortions at the Stanton Yellowknife hospital.
In addition, recent article of Erika Dyck and Maureen Lux on experiences of women in the North also confirmed the minor impact of 1969 abortion law and legal amendments in terms of the reproductive autonomy of Indigenous women. These investigations illuminated the need of intersectional framework to comprehend attitudes to abortion in Canada.
Reframing the problem by an Indigenous worldview would uncover the behaviors and directions in which Indigenous medicine, cultural practices and spirituality have shaped experiences of reproductive women, including abortion; in this area Burnett has made various significant contributions (ACKERMAN & STETTNER, 2019).
Perry , B., & Scrivens, R. (2019). Thinking About Right-Wing Extremism in Canada. Palgrave Hate Studies.
ACKERMAN , K., & STETTNER, S. (2019). “The Public Is Not Ready for This”: 1969 and the Long Road to Abortion Access. The Canadian Historical Review, 239-256.
Boyd, S. (n.d.). Equality An uncomfortable fit in parenting law.
Comack, E., & Brickey, S. (2007). Constituting the Violence of Criminalized Women'. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice .
Kaufman, M. (n.d.). The Day the White Ribbon Campaign Changed the Game: A New Direction in Working to Engage Men and Boys. Contemporary Perspectives.
Kilty , J. (n.d.). Dangerous Liaisons, a Tale of Two Cases: Constructing Women Accused of HIV/AIDS Nondisclosure as Threats to the (lnter)national Body Politic. 留学essay代做
LENON, S. (n.d.). Monogamy, Marriage, and the Making of Nation.
Nicholson, K. (2020). Barriers in Canadian Legal System complicating fight to end domestic violence. CBC News.
Patten , S., & Symington, A. (n.d.). The Blunt Instrument of the Law.