Topic: Learning Styles
海外大学论文代写 One thing that must be understood is that many times we learn from our surroundings, and by observing. Many children pick up what……
Learning has been defined functionally as changes in behavior that result from experience or mechanistically as changes in the organism that result from experience (Houwer, Holmes, Moors, 2013). Our surroundings and experiences teach us a lot and what we take from them depends on how we have learned everything all our lives. Children start learning as early as when they are three months old. Their instincts allow them to understand their surroundings and learn from them.
One thing that must be understood is that many times we learn from our surroundings, and by observing. Many children pick up what their parents of the adults around them say and how they behave as an acceptable behavioral pattern. Which is how they begin behaving as well. That is why, studying the different learning styles of people is extremely important in how different people learn. What their learning cues are. And how to make sure that their behavioral changes occur as per the desired outcomes. 海外大学论文代写
Learning Styles is a term that has been widely used in psychology since the 1930s. There are different aspects of learning styles which have been studies and thus. Has resulted in numerous theories that help develop and learn different types of learning styles. Some studies have been conducted in order to understand the different manners in which students perceive information or prefer to perceive it.
This has led to the creation of auditory learning as many people like to learn by hearing things such as lectures or instructional material. On the other hand. Visual learners prefer visual material whereas tactile-kinaesthetic learners are for people who learn more by gaining hands on experience.
Nowadays, teachers and other instructors need to be aware of how the students learn so that they can facilitate their learning process. The primary reason for teachers to learn all this is so that they can adapt their style of teaching according to the students.
Therefore, it is very important for teachers to understand which mode of learning is more effective for the students. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals’ learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly (Pashlor, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork). Many teachers have started having assessments for learning styles. Which typically ask the individuals to evaluate how they would like to have information presented to them.
Within the field of education, the study of learning styles has had a great influence. 海外大学论文代写
There are many different guidebooks and institutions that present tests for assessing the learning styles of people. However, in order to review whether these practices had any scientific evidence to support them. The concept of different learning styles actually has wide acceptance among the people. Not just among the teachers and students, but also among the parents.
This acceptance is perhaps not surprising because the learning-styles idea is actively promoted by vendors offering many different tests, assessment devices. And online technologies to help educators identify their students’ learning styles and adapt their instructional approaches accordingly, as mentioned above (Pashlor, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork). 海外大学论文代写
The study was conducted to understand the what type of evidence would be required in order to assess the effectiveness of the different learning techniques which are effective for the different styles that have been mentioned previously. In order to do this. Two steps needed to be completed. The first step was analyzing and understanding the concept of learning styles so that the different form of evidence that would be required could be determined. While the second step involved literature review and a comprehensive analysis of how much evidence already exists on the said topic.
The concept of learning styles has been supported by an immense body of material as well as various commercial activities which has given rise to the following by many people, especially by parents requesting institutions to implement such practices. There are many books that can be found on the topic, whereas, the commercial material is inclusive of measurement devices which are primarily targeted towards teachers so that they can measure and assess an individual’s learning style.
Such devices are majorly used to classify the students into one of more type of learning style.
Many organizations suggest that testing should be conducted at various levels of education if not all. So that proper recommendations can be made, especially for students suffering from one or more cognitive disorder such as dyslexia. 海外大学论文代写
For example, the National Association of Secondary School Principles commissioned the construction of a learning-styles test that it distributed widely (Keefe, 1988). A similar step was taken by the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The institute also developed a website which is meant to provide advice and instructions for Yale teachers and instructors.
It also helps the instructors understand their own style of teaching so that it does not contradict or conflict with the student’s style of learning. No matter how old we get, we continue to learn and grow with the passage of time. New developments are being made all over the world every second, and better things are being carried out. Which individuals learning something new every second.
According to Omrod, a renowned psychologist, “‘Some cognitive styles and dispositions do seem to influence how and what students learn. . . . Some students seem to learn better when information is presented through words (verbal learners). Whereas others seem to learn better when it’s presented through pictures (visual learners)’’, (Pashlor, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork).
Learning Styles Schemes 海外大学论文代写
There are many different learning styles models and schemes. The most popular of which is the model developed by Dunn, known as the Dunn and Dunn learning styles, Mumford’s Questionnaire for learning styles, and Kolb’s Inventory of learning styles. Based on these models, different assessment devices have been developed.
Which offer an extensive study of the manner in which an individual learns new things. Most of us are good at learning new things and understand concepts faster based on our own experiences. However, with the passage of time. Some people need specific details in order for them to learn new information. 海外大学论文代写
With the success of institutions and an increase in the educational institutes now available for all students. The prevalence and popularity of the learning styles and their acceptance increased. Most learning style theories are said to be “type theories” which means that they help in classifying people into distinct groups which basically indicate the primary means of learning they use.
Instead of assigning people grade scores of different dimensions. For example, a person may be able to learn by seeing things. Through hands on experience. And via hearing things different. Such as he or she may pick something faster when they experience it rather than when they say or hear it. But may also be able to learn via all three mediums. Most people assume that an individual’s learning style belongs to only one group to which he or she belongs.
Psychologist and Psychiatrist C. G. Jung was one of the first people to come up with typological theorizing in the field of learning and personality.
The Myers Briggs type indicator test was developed based on the ideas presented by Jung. Which became one of the most popular personality tests in the 1940s. It continues to be used to date. Based on its ability to categorize people into a number of groups. By providing information that helps in making occupational decisions. The assumption that people actually cluster into distinct groups as measured by this test has received little support from objective studies (Pashlor, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork). 海外大学论文代写
However, even with lack of objective support. The popularity of the test and the belief that learning styles do exist has not been affected. There is immense appeal in people to find out what type of person they are. And how it correlates to everything they have ever accomplished or done in their life. Additionally, many people want the educators to treat them and their children like they are unique. Which is another reason for the wide acceptance and support for these tests and theories.
And finally, the last and the most important reason why there is so much popularity among the masses regarding these tests and theories is responsibility. Many people believe that when a child does not perform then it is the adult’s. Who is responsible for them. Duty to ensure that they learn and perform the way they are meant to. That is, rather than attribute one’s lack of success to any lack of ability or effort on one’s part. It may be more appealing to think that the fault lies with instruction being inadequately tailored to one’s learning style (Pashlor, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork).
There needs to be evidence which suggest that the intervention of the learning styles is needed to enhance a student’s learning by changing the type of instructions being provided to that student.
The optimal instructional method differs according to each student’s preferences. Simply because in a classroom there are multiple kids who have gotten together to learn. In that aspect, when there are different sets of rules and parameters for each and every student. Then it becomes necessary for the instructor to find a medium which is acceptable to all.
In such situations the instructor is also not able to give ample attention and time to each student. Which hinders the students’ development. The question then should be whether the educational settings that have been developed by the school system is perhaps causing a drift between the learning styles of the students and the teaching styles of the teachers. And if so, then how can this be overcome.
Interactions are the key in determining the learning styles of people because . It helps in understanding what clicks with the individual and thus, helps them learn faster than others. 海外大学论文代写
Learners need to be divided into different groups, that are given various tasks to accomplish and learn from, key findings need to be developed on the basis of what an individual learns and how this helps him or her achieve the goals that have been set by the study. This set up will indicate how much learning styles actually help in understanding . Why a student fails or why an individual performs lower than his or her peers.
So far, it has been discussed that individuals have preferences regarding the manner in which information is provided to them, thereby, allowing them to learn.
However, on the other hand, it also needs to be understood . That each individual is born with an ability that is stronger than the rest and thus. The mental capability and abilities differ from person to person. The notion of learning style as a set of preferences and the notion of learning style as a specific aptitude are very closely intertwined in many discussions of learning styles (Pashlor, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork).
Additionally, it is our impression and perception that learning styles and differential abilities are distinguished. It needs to be understood that the primary reason why learning styles differ is because everybody is born with different abilities and thus perceives and processes information different as well.
This is one of the major reasons why it is necessary to understand the study of learning styles and develop it further. So that it can benefit those who face difficulty in understanding and learning new things. Processing information can take some time which can be a little disconcerting for many people since they believe. That the child may be lacking in some way, however, everybody has their own time and pace at which they learn and process information.
Cornbach (1957) conducted immense research in order to understand and uncover the interactions between aptitude and instructions (along with various aspects of instructions).
Aptitude by treatment interactions (refers to the course instructions and other instructions received) is separate from the learning styles measurement. Which reveals that interactions are necessary in order to ensure . That the students learn the correct messages and gain the context in which topics are being taught.
Similarly there are personality by treatment interactions as well. As mentioned previously, many people learn by experiencing things. Which teaches them in more ways than one about the valuable life lessons. However, personality is a key indicator that presents a clearer picture of how individuals learn and how they use those learnings. To sum it up, it can be simply understood that the learning styles and personality are interlinked and highly dependent upon one another. 海外大学论文代写
However, there is still much that needs to be understood and studies on this topic as research is based on hypothesis and not actual data which can be quantified and analyzed under different assumptions. Therefor I would like to suggest that there is a great need to have more studies on the said topic. So that actionable theories and results could be achieved and understood.
To conclude, I would like to state that the study on learning styles is something on which more research needs to be conducted . So that a clearer picture can be brought forward. Additionally, the evaluation of the learning-styles concept led us to identify the form of evidence needed to validate the use of learning-style assessments in instructional settings (Pashlor, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork).
The search of learning styles has actually led us to slight. Fragmented and entirely unconvincing evidences, which do not really prove that a) learning styles actually are important in helping develop the manner in which people learn and making the process easier for them and b) in determining just how effective the methods and techniques . That have been laid out by many of the famous organizations and authors actually are in developing the cognitive abilities of an individual.
In terms of applying the learning style assessments. 海外大学论文代写
it is questionable whether or not school systems should actually allow their use. As it does not reveal in any manner that it is indeed effective for the kids who are studying or who seek help in learning new information.
With the advent of many technological devices, kids have become far more advanced in terms of gathering information and learning new things that it begets the question, are learning style studies and tests. And questionnaires really that effective in helping teachers develop a teaching style that best meets the needs of the students.
At the same time, it also brings forward the question that is there any basis of the popularity of learning styles as it is not backed by any quantifiable results. Perhaps, the matter needs to be looked into in greater detail so that the learning styles. If useful at all, can be better developed and honed in all children.
In order to ensure that the learning style studies can be of use to the students as well as teachers.
We suggest the following, so that all involved parties can gain benefits from them. Although in this paper we have argued that the extent of data that is currently available does not provide support for the learning-styles hypothesis, it should be emphasized that it cannot be claimed that the same kind of instruction is applicable in all contexts, situations and with all involved parties, teachers as well as learners.
An obvious point is that the optimal instructional method is likely to vary across disciplines. For instance, the optimal curriculum for a writing course probably includes a heavy verbal emphasis. Whereas the most efficient and effective method of teaching geometry obviously requires visual–spatial materials (Pashlor, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork). Therefore, as discussed in this paper, there are conflicting views on the matter regarding the effective utilization of learning styles.
No doubt there are different types of learning styles, and people have their own way of studying and learning details.
Some students read and memorize it, whereas, others have to write everything down. In order to comprehend the message that is being provided through their studies. Teachers need to understand the different ways in which students learn and should incorporate the different types of learning in their teaching styles so that the overall effectiveness of their lectures can be gained by all students.
Additionally, it should also be understood that through proper guidance and encouragement from instructors, even the students who were unable to perform well can do so. Therefore, instructors need to be aware of the most effective teachings styles available out there, and ensure that the students are able to learn what is intended. 海外大学论文代写
Some students will benefit from having a specific type of course content, whereas, other will benefit from having a different type of course content. Yes, it may be because of their learning styles, however. As mentioned earlier, most studies believe that one person can only have one specific type of learning style and don’t even consider that one person can having varying degrees of each type of learning styles, i.e. learning through hearing, seeing or by gaining hands on experience.
It should be considered that a person, being the complex being that he or she is.
Can have different degrees of the three learning styles and there can be one dominant learning styles, but other types of learning can be honed and developed as well.
To sum up, I would just like to state that learning is a state of the mind and a cognitive process that differs from person to person. Generalizing it is not going to help anyone, therefore, more research needs to be conducted and a clearer thought process needs to be developed which actually presents a quantifiable framework that helps determine the effectiveness of the different learning styles that each person possesses.
Harold Pashler, Mark McDaniel, Doug Rohrer, and Robert Bjork, Learning Styles Concepts and Evidence, retrieved 23-3-18 from;
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Jan De Houwer & Dermot Barnes-Holmes & Agnes Moors, What is learning? On the nature and merits of a functional definition of learning, retrieved 23-3-18 from; 海外大学论文代写
Sean H. K. Kang, Spaced Repetition Promotes Efficient and Effective Learning: Policy Implications for Instruction, retrieved 23-3-18 from;
Doug Rohrer and Harold Pashler, Recent Research on Human Learning Challenges Conventional Instructional Strategies, retrieved 23-3-18 from;