critical review例文:帮写留学作业如何“Critical Writing”?

关于留学工作创作,有的同学们“下笔如有神”,而有的同学们则是“一筹莫展”,最终迫不得已找帮写进行。想起出国留学工作里markers给的comments,全篇的“too descriptive”,缘故取决于沒有掌握Critical Writing。那麼怎样Critical Writing?做为技术专业帮写留学人员工作组织,文中paperdaixie.com我来为大伙儿一探究竟。

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最先,确立帮写出国留学工作目地

最先大家来聊一聊帮写出国留学工作前的准备工作,在创作以前,我们可以先问一下自己下列好多个难题,确立创作目地。

• What am I writing about?

• What is the purpose of this paper?

•What are the main points I want my readers/markers to understand?

• Who is the intended audience?

那麼针对出国留学工作而言,一个很立即的目地便是,拿高分数!成功大学毕业!看上去是一个很宏伟的方案,必须“过五关斩六将”,哈哈哈哈哈,实际上都没有那麼浮夸。如果我们把这个“big plan”细分为“small steps”,看上去就沒有那麼恐怖了!

次之,帮写出国留学工作前提前准备

在正式开始论文撰写以前,我们可以先保证以下几个方面:

Read the instructions for the dissertation handbook thoroughly to ensure that you have a clear understanding of the expectations; 

Use the instructions to form the paper’s basic outline or headings, i.e. Introduction, Literature review, Research design…; 

More importantly, pay attention to the assessment criteria!!!  

(温馨提醒:在创作全过程中,还要隔三差五地去回望“ assessment criteria”里的內容,to make sure you are on the right track) 

贯彻落实你要的research proposal后,就到逐渐寻找参考文献,很多阅读文章,搭建毕业论文构思的情况下了,下边大家以提前准备参考文献为例子,讲一下操作步骤。

文献综述

随后。帮写出国留学工作操作步骤

 1. Identify research themes

(Themes refers to general keywords, ideas, and categories related to the research topic of your paper. )

一开始应对很多的信息内容,很有可能会感觉找不到方向,别担心,它是很一切正常的。静下来细心细读参考文献,你能发掘出。边读边记笔记,小结参考文献中的重要信息,渐渐地你也就会发觉 “themes within the research studies and literature” ,根据这种themes来设计构思毕业论文的headings and subheadings,最终你的参考文献的架构就搭好了。

 2. Outlines and graphic organizers

(Outline: An outline sets forth the thesis and lists the major points that will be made to support or prove the thesis. Each major point can be further elaborated upon with minor points and subtopics. A linear outline is a map of an assignment, with a clear path from Point A (the thesis) to Point B (the conclusion). The path between the two points is composed of the major points and subtopics presented to support the thesis statement.)

这是一个非常好的方式,由于许多情况下,假如在创作以前没有一个条理清晰逻辑性缜密的“outline” , 大家非常容易在创作的全过程中节节败退,很可能飘飘洒洒地写了一大堆,可是发觉全是“irrelevant parts”。构建论文结构能够协助“整体规划”大家的出国留学工作创作。

在这儿详细介绍二种亲自测试合理的方式:

a) Using a linear outline

具体方法:先试着搭建major points of your paper, 随后根据从参考文献中获取有效信息内容做为supporting evidence, 产生minor points。

实际提议:

• 以main ideas and concepts搭建大题目

• 用等级分类题目优化

• 留意分不一样的视角/见解展现

• 用不一样色调的笔标明重要信息内容

• 你能给每一个点标明好编号,使构造更为清楚

• 留意手记简约

b) 大家还可以根据构建concept map的方式,依本人习惯性而定哦!举个事例:

concept map

搞好前边的准备工作后,大家逐渐以创作的方法完成“专业知识輸出”了。


  1. Put your critical reviews to writing

最先大家确立2个定义,Summary vs. Synthesis

• Summary is recap of important information

• Synthesis is a re-organization, or weaving, of that information

a) It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with the old

b) It might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates

尤其是参考文献创作,并不是对参考文献的简略归纳再累加,只是根据对融合数篇参考文献信息内容, 并添加自身的interpretation。

大家先看来一个背面事例:

Brown (2008) studied A and found Y. Roberts (2012) investigated B and found X and Y. Peterson (2007, 2013) conducted a long-term investigation into C and found X, Y and Z. 

留意,大家的文章内容必须反映:

• Arguments from different sources & link them together

• Your own analysis & interpretation. Analysis is not just your opinion, it needs to be supported by the literature

可以用以下方法展现:

a) Distant to close 

Most distantly related to your work → Most closely related to your work 

b) Chronological 

Earliest related work → Most recent related work 

c) Comparison and contrast of different approaches or particular features or characteristics of relevant theories and research

One approach → An alternative approach → Another approach 

Most early theories of motivation were concerned with need satisfaction. Robbins, Millet, Cacioppe and Waters-Marsh (1998) argued that motivation relies on what a person needs and wants. Similarly, the early theories of Maslow and McGregor (Robbins et al 1998) focused on personal needs satisfaction as the basis for motivational behavior. However, recent studies outlined by Leonard, Beauvais and Scholl (1999) suggest that personality and disposition play an equally important role in motivation. Current thinking does not discount these theories, but simply builds on them to include a self-concept. 


  1. 标准学术研究术语

在写参考文献或是阐述自身的见解的情况下,许多同学们喜爱用“Author A says …, Author B mentions…”展现,可是在这种表述见解的学术研究术语在应用上也是有注重的哦!留意区别:

• that which is certainly true:


  • e.g. Influenza is caused by a virus.

• that which is only probably true [how probable?]:


  • e.g. Schizophrenia seems to result from an interaction between genetic factors and environmental stressors. 

• that which is only possibly true:


  • e.g. A student group may perform badly on an assignment because of interpersonal conflict between group members. 

Hedges

• Used to indicate various levels of a lack of complete certainty.

• Also used to be diplomatic when critiquing the work of others.

e.g. Suggest / may; seem; believe / could; appear to; might; hypothesise; assume / likely; speculate; possible; might

Boosters

• Indicators of conviction:

e.g. Show that / always; demonstrate / substantially; clearly show / will; fact that;

obviously / will

Certainly true 

Tyacke and Mendelsohn’s (1986) diary study showed that lower-level students always depended far more on their teacher and on grammar rules than higher-level students. 

Politzer (1983) demonstrated that females used social learning strategies substantially more often than males. 

The findings clearly show that in typical language learning situations women will use more learning strategies than men. 

Probably true 

• Research suggests that higher-level students may use more effective foreign language learning strategies than students with lower ability. 

• According to several researchers, it seems that language students use different strategies as they progress. 

• Many researchers assume that the learner’s level of motivation is likely to influence the choice of strategies.

Possibly true (conjectures based on relevant knowledge or theory) 

• These gender differences might be explained by differences in communication preferences. 

• We hypothesize however that after strategy training, men and women will both show strategy strengths. 

• We speculate that the problem was low motivation for language learning. 

• Politzer and McGroarty (1985) report the possible importance of language learning goals. 

Key signal / signposting words used in critical writing

Key signal / signposting words


  1. Integrating critical literature reviews into your dissertation

能够参照下面的图的帮写出国留学工作架构,协助大约理清每个章节目录必须涉及到的內容:

帮写留学作业框架

之上便是paperdaixie.com我为大伙儿小结的有关帮写出国留学工作的有关专业知识和方法,热烈欢迎阅读文章,若有帮写出国留学工作必须,热烈欢迎联络在线客服。

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