Why does academic honesty matter in academic writing?
学术英语ESSAY代写 But also the spiritual requirements such as academic ideas, academic ethics and academic character. Academic research is closely
With the continuous expansion and optimization of educational resources and the prevalence of studying abroad, in recent years. The population size of higher education has increased rapidly. And the number of college enrollment has also increased sharply. Higher education is the key link to train high-level technical personnel. The popularization of higher education not only improves the overall quality of higher education, but also highlights many problems of academic ethics（Davis，2002）. The direction of contemporary education reform and development is to cultivate high-quality talents. Therefore, while cultivating high level talents with excellent professional quality. More attention should be paid to students' academic honesty and academic ethics. Good academic norms are the moral bottom line that scientific research workers must abide by(Willinsky & Alperin,2011).
Academic honesty is the survival way of academic imparts in the academic circle. There are common rules and standards, or "rules of the game," which are essential to any social activity, whether in research or other fields, and the academic world is no exception(De George,2003). The rules of the game in the academic field play a role in clarifying boundaries, guiding behaviors, and maintaining organizational order. First, it forms a professional "fence" or "boundary", granting admittance to those who are recognized, and excluding those who are not. Which becomes the basis for ensuring professional quality.
Second, clarifying the expectations of professional behavior makes communication based on mutual dialogue and understanding. Third, the recognized authority in the academic community is formed. The fairness of evaluation and intellectual property rights are maintained. And the academic order is ensured. Without normative "rules of the game," neither scientific research nor daily communication can be carried out. Mastering the basic academic norms is the only way to get a glimpse of the academic truth(De George,2003).
"If a person has the basic qualifications for scientific work -- intelligence, energy, perception, and a good education -- he who is willing to follow the rules of the game can easily achieve remarkable results."
Clark Kerr(1994)has made a summary of the behavioral rules of academic activities, among which the contents related to students include: collect and use evidence carefully, correctly use others' ideas and works, be skeptical of things that have not been fully proved. And take academic value as the criterion for evaluating academic performance. Although academic activities follow certain game rules, not all of them are written rules. There are both written rules and conventions.
This convention, from Achilles' point of view, is an implicit theory governing people's behavior, namely, people consciously apply it in the course of action and learn it without noticing(Payan, et al,2010). The established or potential rules in academic research and the cultural rules of academic community cannot be completely reflected by the written system. School norms education should not only present academic requirements specification in written form, but also make the hidden, potential, not attention, unclear, or unwritten regulations in the process of original academic activities explicit, or presented in a clear way, promoting the students understand the importance and necessity of these requirements, as well as the guidance of self learning so that they have initiative to learn, understand and abide by consciously.
In general, the academic norms education is the education about the principle of survival within the academic education field. Which is not only the basic ways to obtain identity of teaching students academic research and its achievements, but also the main dimensions to clear academic value judgments and choices, causing students to clear the rules and practices to abide by during the course of academic research and communication activities, as a contract generally recognized and abided by academia(Ryan, et al,2009). Therefore, academic standard education is the basic ways to train students to have the basic quality of academic activities and the sense of responsibility, which gives students a key to entry -- the basic skills of academic survival, or the way of academic survival.
Paragraph 2 学术英语ESSAY代写
Academic standard education can play a role as the academic honesty warning and prevention of violations of academic norms. The improper academic behavior among students is caused by the reasons such as the lack of understanding of academic norms and deviation of cognition, etc., except that a very few students do have the reason of moral quality(Hamilton, 2002). In addition, college students still have a strong plasticity, so the responsibility of academic standard education is significant. Students should have a comprehensive understanding of the general state of knowledge before committing themselves to learning a particular and specialized knowledge. Academic standard education is a preparation of students for any professional study, which provides a kind of common values, academic standards and basic principles and methods of academic activities, and pays attention to cultivating students' correct academic motivation, attitude and behavior habits(Hamilton, 2002).
Specifically, it is to promote students' cognition of the purpose and nature of academic work.
Help students form a correct academic view. Follow the principles and methods of academic research, cultivate good academic research habits, and teach students how to do academic work. So as to form a good academic awareness and accomplishment. When students understand and recognize the role of academic values and rules of academic activities. They will consciously take academic norms as the criteria for action, and the occurrence of violations of academic norms will be prevented from the source. Besides, when education, especially practical case analysis. Makes students understand the consequences of violating academic norms, it also plays a role of warning and prevention.
The behavior of violating academic norms will be significantly reduced, which is also proved by the questionnaire. Prevention is preferable to punishment, and some actions can be avoided effectively through preventive measures(Willinsky & Alperin,2011), for example, some plagiarisms are just caused by ignorance. But the consequence is very serious. Therefore, explaining to the students the concept of plagiarism and informing the students why plagiarism is a serious fault not only can prevent plagiarism due to ignorance. But also play a deterrent effect for deliberate plagiarism. In short, giving full play to the role of academic standard education will play a very important role in forewarning and preventing the occurrence of violations of academic standards(Willinsky & Alperin,2011).
Academic honesty is the foothold of quality education. A university is not only an institution for the pure transfer of academic knowledge, but also the shoulders of responsibility to cultivate the “holistic person" or "perfect person" with faith and spiritual pursuit. To develop "holistic" is to promote students in such aspects as the intellectual. Moral and aesthetic all-round development, especially to cultivate the students' self development, improve the level of self consciousness and moral development and the ability of paying attention to others and society, enhance the ability of analysis and judgment of things, and have the basic qualities citizens should have such as honest, responsible and respectful for others, etc(Davis，2002).
Holistic-person education should run through the whole education process(Davis，2002). However, there is a deviation in the existing university education. As Professor Jin Yiu-kee, a famous scholar in Hong Kong, said, "It seems that civic education and moral (value) education are basically left to middle and primary schools"(Willinsky & Alperin,2011). The reasons are closely related to the goal-oriented teaching and research in higher education.
In university, the pursuit of knowledge, especially the advanced knowledge, almost has been the subject and center of all education work, and scientific research and teaching as the main way of the search for knowledge has become the fundamental goal and core of institutions of higher education, namely, the modern university is "intellectual orientation", and knowledge has become the most important pursuit, occupying the dominant position; Whereas moral or values education is marginalized(Davis，2002). This is because scientific knowledge is regarded as knowledge, and value systems and ideas are excluded from the scope of "knowledge", which leads to the weakening of moral or value education in university education. In Academic Duty, Kennedy(1997) argues that "we educate young academic successors by focusing on their respective academic fields, while neglecting the other knowledge and skills necessary for them to become successful and responsible academic citizens."
In colleges and universities, students' education is divided into two parts which are not related to each other: academic education and ideological quality education(De George,2003). 学术英语ESSAY代写
Academic education is the main content of education, whose main position is guaranteed by courses, credits and other forms.(De George,2003) However, the teaching design of education lacks the link of the students' cognition of the training goal, and lacks the detailed requirements and the systematic arrangement of specific procedures, measures and responsibilities for realizing the goal. Students lack an understanding of the steps, methods and standards to achieve their goals, and thus tend to lose direction and motivation in their academic career. Ideological quality education is a broad concept, whose core content is how to behave as a human, but to focus on the ideological and political education in the practical work.
Despite there are the political thought lesson, situation and policy class, and there are ideological and political instructors conducting education on values and moral after school. But systematic education of related content as academic values and moral quality is not enough, Ignoring the important role of academic ideological and moral education to the life, lacking of deep thinking on relevant issues as how to form the features of combining with academic career in moral education and cultivate qualified personnel of both professional skills and good moral quality. Moreover, specific and detailed requirements from the angle of practice are tough to put forward. The students' moral education is relatively vague. Failing to give full play to the guiding role of teaching students to be human(McGee,2013）.
Academic standard education is the best entry point for college students' ideological education.
In the stage of higher education popularization, no matter it is the elite education in research universities or the application-oriented talent cultivation in ordinary universities. The bottom line of academic ethics in talent cultivation is the same. Undergraduate graduates should have the initial ability to engage in the practical work and research work of their major. And graduate students should have the ability to engage in creative scientific research work and practical work of their major at different levels(Payan, et al,2010). Therefore, it is a common requirement for college students to master certain academic research ability which academic standard education must be adapted to.
The content of academic standard education includes not only the rules and requirements of knowledge level such as the principles and methods of academic research and communication.
But also the spiritual requirements such as academic ideas, academic ethics and academic character. Academic research is closely related to the cultivation of academic attitude and spirit. The attitude of being objective, realistic and responsible, the spirit of teamwork, being brave of difficulties and adhering to the truth are the necessary conditions for academic research. Which also play a certain role in guiding how to behave as a human, and can be gradually learned in the process of academic research.
Personal integrity is not an innate quality, which must be cultivated(Hamilton, 2002). Therefore, the academic standard education, which is guided by teaching students how to do learning honestly. Also performs the function of teaching students how to be a man. And lays a solid foundation for cultivating qualified talents. It is an important and effective way for the integrity education. Academic quality education or holistic person education in colleges and universities.
Besides, we should also see that the role of academic standard education is limited. Which can only draw a bottom line for students' academic behavior and point out the direction of behavior. It is the basic condition that students must have when they engage in academic activities. Without it, they cannot become qualified graduates. But to be a qualified graduate. One must innovate while abiding by academic norms(Willinsky & Alperin,2011).
Nothing can be accomplished without rules. Academic work has always had its own norms. If academic norms are not observed, there can be no real academic research. Academic honesty is the way of survival for academic teaching. The behavior to warn and prevent violating academic norms and the foothold of quality education.
Davis, M. (2002). Ethics and the University. New York:Routledge.
De George, R. T. (2003). Ethics, academic freedom and academic tenure. Journal of Academic Ethics, 1(1), 11-25.
Grijalva, T. C., Kerkvliet, J., & Nowell, C. (2006). Academic honesty and online courses. College Student Journal, 40(1).
Kerr, C. (1994). Knowledge ethics and the new academic culture. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 26(1), 9-15.
Kennedy, D. (1997). Academic duty.Harvard: Harvard University Press.
McGee, P. (2013). Supporting academic honesty in online courses. Journal of Educators Online, 10(1), 1-31.
Payan, J., Reardon, J., & McCorkle, D. E. (2010). The effect of culture on the academic honesty of marketing and business students. Journal of Marketing Education, 32(3), 275-291.
Ryan, G., Bonanno, H., Krass, I., Scouller, K., & Smith, L. (2009). Undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 73(6).
Hamilton, N. W. (2002). Academic ethics: Problems and materials on professional conduct and shared governance. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Willinsky, J., & Alperin, J. P. (2011). The academic ethics of open access to research and scholarship. Ethics and Education, 6(3), 217-223.