如何写好论文?如何理解抄袭和引用?_essay代写


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要想掌握剽窃?引入?阅读文章下边本文,帮你分的一清二楚清清楚楚!今日大家就搜集了一份来源于美国某高校教师的技术专业解读,看一下这名教师怎样从零来教你写成好毕业论文!(文章内容装有中英,大家读起來更长见识啦)

Must-Read Series Part 1: A lecturer’s guide to writing a good dissertation – Understanding Plagiarism, Ghost-writing and Referencing.

我亲爱的同学们,实话实说,今日肯定是一个普大喜奔的好日子!

观众们云:what are you 弄啥类?

由于今日我想从我这个专(jue)业(dui)人(nei)士(hang)视角考虑,仔细地教你认清写毕业论文里的各种各样小把戏,学好各种各样小窍门。

I will be giving you an inside look into the tips and tricks that can help you improve your dissertation. As a university lecturer, I understand the many difficulties international students face before they even put pen to paper. Terms like plagiarism, and referencing confuse even the most able students – but not anymore. In this edition of our Must-Read Series, I will demystify Plagiarism, Ghost-writing and Referencing.

做为一个大学教师,我是非常的了解大家每一次写毕业论文情况下痛苦不堪的情绪。许多 情况下都不清楚该怎么写出第一句话,更不要说一整篇文章毕业论文的那类近乎奔溃的情绪有没有,并且,分(wan)类(quan)细(bu)致(dong)的各种各样规定和界定一大堆,例如仅是“剽窃”和“引入”的界定就不清楚蒙蔽了是多少的芊芊学子。在今天的本文里,我也来教大伙儿分清晰,究竟啥叫“剽窃”,“代笔”和“引入”。

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Plagiarism

We’ve all heard the phrase, but what does it really mean? Essentially, plagiarism refers to a student using statements made by others without referencing them. If you find yourself in the situation where you are trying to pretend that a piece of work is your own when it really is not, then that is considered plagiarism.

Why is it so serious?

Plagiarism is taken very seriously because it is simply a form of cheating. Now you may have heard stories about a ‘friend-of-a-friend’ escaping the watchful eye of their lecturers and universities, but consider this sheer luck and are likely to use Turnitin which detects any possible plagiarism from your submitted work. At worst, some may even consider removing a student from their programme of study or the university, if they repeatedly submit plagiarised work.

What should I remember?

The main thing to remember is to plan your time and reference appropriately. Unfortunately, plagiarism often occurs from students forgetting to use in-text citations, footnotes and bibliographies (this will be covered in the last section). We lecturers do want you to showcase your wide reading and therefore want you to include referenced arguments made by experts. It would be easier if you could mark the references whilst you are writing the essay, and consolidate the bibliography after finish writing. Nowadays, many reference generating servises are available online, you may would like to have a try.

剽窃

“剽窃”这诗人人都听过,但到底是个什么意思?实际上,剽窃是指本来引入了别人说过得话或者读过的语句,却不事前申明一下自身在引入,只是装作自身原創。就如同你写了句全球人都了解的’To be or not to be, it is a problem.’ 在自己的文章里,但沒有标明它是莎翁的语句,那即使作是剽窃啦!

为何大伙儿把“剽窃”这回事儿看的这般关键?

实际上便是简易的不可以再简易的缘故啦,由于“剽窃”便是一种舞弊。你很有可能有听闻过哪一个小伙伴们的小伙伴们成功的逃过去了院校的核查,剽窃沒有被发觉。殊不知这肯定是在挺而走险,肯定不必去试着!肯定不必去试着!肯定不必去试着!(关键得话说三遍)每一个高校都把剽窃这回事儿看的非常非常十分关键,都是会用Turnitin系统软件去查验每章论文造假的概率。假如剽窃反复产生,院校是很有可能立即规定学员休学的(吓死宝宝了)!

写毕业论文的情况下有关“剽窃”得还记得做什么?

最关键要做的事儿,实际上便是一定要还记得科学安排你的写毕业论文時间,而且始终还记得要标明“引入”啦!许多 情况下很遗憾的是,学生们忘记了要应用文章内容中引入,论文脚注,也有参考文献文件目录(今日文章内容的最终一段会实际表述这三项哦)。做为教师,我们都是真心实意期待见到学生们为了更好地写毕业论文干了很多的阅读文章,因此期待大家能够把这些引入过的句子都标明出去,也便捷大家恰当有效的给大家毕业论文评分啦。最好能在写的情况下就标识reference,而且梳理bibliography。并且如今许多 网址都能帮大伙儿整齐,何不试一下。

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Referencing (aka citing)

Importance of referencing. As mentioned previously, referencing, also known as citing, is a key area which often gets overlooked by many students, due to its low mark allocation. But remember, without referencing appropriately, you could be caught for plagiarism.

I would describe referencing as a method to highlight the information sources used in the body of any text. Referencing is used to acknowledge statements or quotes from an expert, and to allow the reader to trace the source. Please use published sources as references such as academic textbooks, journals (e.g. business journals), newspapers (broadsheet newspapers, not tabloid newspapers), and government sources (such as a range of news websites) rather than sources whereby it is often not possible to know the writer and therefore have no idea of the level of trustworthiness of the source (such as Wikipedia). If you would like to cite other’s dissertation, it is usually viable for those written by PHDs, as other dissertations are normally not published, and may result in suspicision of plagiarism.

What supervisors look for?

Dissertation supervisors and lecturers expect you and every other student to follow the rules set by a specific referencing system, i.e. Harvard-style or Chicago. Firstly you need to ensure you understand what these rules are for each type of source you use (e.g. online source, book, journal, newspaper, etc). Once you have the understanding you must adhere to those given rules. For example, if you put forth an argument from ‘expert A’, it is essential to include their name and date of source in brackets, within the text.

How to reference i.e. Harvard Template/Example

To fully understand the referencing method for commonly used materials, make sure to visit your university library.

I hope you are now armed with the knowledge to write a great dissertation!

Last but not least, I would like to emphasize again that integrity is always the most important thing that UK schools and teachers concerns. You may have noticed that there have been more examinations especially set for Chinese students these years. This is actually a method that schools use to assess the true ability of students again, reducing the chance of plagiarism and ghost-writing being neglected.

参照/引入

引入的必要性

前文也是有谈及过,“引入”又被变成“参照”,是十分关键却又非常容易被学生们忽视的一件事,由于每章毕业论文给引入这一项的得分分派都非常少。殊不知干万要还记得的是,要是没有恰当的开展“引入”,你很有可能便会变成被误以为是“剽窃”的接盘侠啦!

我认为,引入是一种标明出全部文章正文里信息内容来源于的方式。它可指全部来源于专(bie)家(ren)说过得话或者读过的语句,进而协助阅读者寻找每一句那样的阐述的来源于。也有一点要留意的是,reference一定要来自出版发行过的参考文献,教材、期刊杂志、大中型报刊(并不是小报图片哦!)、官方网信息内容(例如新闻公报这类的)。不可以是不明创作者的的参考文献,例如wiki百科。假如想钻空子用Wikipedia得话,大约還是去世了这条心为好,也有人要想引入他人的毕业论文,可是请干万记牢,一般仅有博士研究生的论文才有实用价值,其他毕业论文由于沒有被出版发行过,因此還是不必引入了,弄不好还会继续被算是剽窃。

具体指导/监管教师找的是什么?

毕业论文老师和老师一般 期待学生们可以遵照一种规范的引入系统软件开展引入,例如哈佛大学规范或是纽约规范。最先,你应该掌握这二种不一样系统软件的引入规范,针对每一种引入来源于的规范都需要清!清!楚!楚!例如在网上来源于,参考文献,刊物,报刊这些。如果你弄清楚了这种规范之后,还记得在作引入的情况下,要完全的依照这种规范来。例如,你要想在毕业论文里写一句来源于“权威专家A”说的见解,就一定要还记得在文章内容里边的括弧里标明好权威专家的姓名及其说这句话的時间。

究竟如何作引入?

假如你要想一清二楚的掌握引入常见信息内容来源于的方式和规范,例如哈佛大学规范,你能到学校图书馆去找一找有关指南或是事例,看懂了这些事例之后,当然也就能融汇贯通地自身开展毕业论文里的引入啦!

讲了这么多,期待学生们如今都可以分清晰“剽窃”,“代笔”和“引入”的差别,而且把恰当的引入方法应用到之后自身写毕业论文的全过程中啦!

最终的最终,還是要想注重一下:始终还记得诚信是英国大学与老师最为看好的。想来大伙儿很有可能觉得得近些年中国学生集中化的技术专业考試愈来愈多,实际上大部分便是院校与老师为了更好地避免剽窃和代笔不法得到优异成绩,要想再度检测学员简直水准。因此在你心里一无数只草尼马飞奔地提前准备考試的情况下,要了解这次考試很有可能便是由于你的老前辈交给你的礼(xue)物(zhai)。

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Welcome back students! As autumn is well under way, many of us have already scoured our wardrobes for coats and scarfs, and the kitchen for that warm cup of coco. But unfortunately October never disappoints in bringing along assignments, assignments and more assignments. To make sure you hit the new term running, I will be giving you an inside look into the tips and tricks that can help you improve your dissertation.  As a university lecturer, I understand the many difficulties international students face when structuring and presenting their work. Let this be a thing of the past. In this edition of our Must-Read Series, I will break down the best way of producing an A-grade presented and composed piece of work.

欢迎回来!一转眼秋季就到;小热裤也都无法穿了;商场里热巧也逐渐愈来愈火爆了。自然也有: 工作,工作,工作!别担心,为了更好地帮你成功挺过这人生中最黑喑的阶段, 今日要告知大伙儿写毕业论文的各种各样小窍门,各种各样小秘笈。尽管我是老师,但依然会深有体会(委媛:终究也受虐过);绝大多数留学人员都是会遭遇写毕业论文的一系列难题。我要做的便是将你从这次恶梦中解救出来(自然并不是叫你找代笔啦)!在今天本文里我想教大伙儿四个关键的要素:CW,学术研究写作风格,标点符号和拼读及其毕业论文描述。

(CW) Command Words

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What are ‘command words’?

最先,CW究竟有什么意思呢?(原先立意也是有这么大的大学问!)

Ah, good ol’ command words. When I was a student, it took me a long time to understand what they are and why getting top marks depends on your understanding of them. The best definition of a command word is, the main verbs that appear in an assessment question. Command words indicate what approach should be applied to answering the question.

听见Commands word这个词,可能许多 同学们便会心痛一地。在我都念书的情况下,因为我花了很长期才搞清楚CW是到底是啥,为何它对毕业论文考试成绩那么关键。我认为,CW是难题里最关键的形容词,这决策着毕业论文应当采用哪样方式来解答问题。

For example:

“Compare the differences between…” Compare: discuss two or more things in terms of their similarities and differences.

“Please evaluate…” Evaluate: judge; criticise in terms of impact/significance, and investigate the implications.

“Assess the reasons why…” Assess: decide the value of; judge; measure the importance of something.

词组一: “把甲与乙较为起來”(较为,就是指比照几类类似事情的不同点、好坏),

词组二: “点评一下”(一般 就是指对一件事或角色开展分辨、剖析后的结果),

词组三: “评定缘故”(对计划方案开展评定和论述,确定其必要性)。

Are they really important?

为何CW这般关键?

In short, yes. Comprehending command words is a common issue for a range of students I work with. A misunderstanding of the command word will lead to you misunderstanding the question. If, for example, you are asked to ‘evaluate’ the use of a business model by a particular organisation, but you end up simply ‘describing’ it instead, there is a strong likelihood that the marker will consider your written response to be descriptive rather than evaluative; therefore not really providing an appropriate response to the actual task given. In the end marks will be taken off.

简单点来说,设想一下,假如不清楚标准,毫无疑问就不可以好好地玩乐了,是否?不正确地了解CW必定造成 误会难题自身层面——例如:毕业论文难题规定评定一种运营模式,倒但你也就只叙述运营模式有哪些关键点。显而易见,那老师便会觉得你写的毕业论文文不对题,那么就只有和高分说再见咯。(委媛套入一句老话:干活儿不由自主东,累坏也无功功率。不依照教师的含意写,毫无疑问要凉……)

Okay, but what should I do?

懂了,但我该怎么做呢?

Make a list of command words and find each definition. When you have time, I suggest you look online for basic assignment questions and practise writing short answers. Every little bit helps! Remember, understanding command words is a most significant step towards understanding what the assessment requires. In turn, you will be able to research and write your response effectively.

干万别忘记:CW是写好一篇毕业论文的第一步。我建议,有时间的情况下先列一张CW明细,包含全部的英中表述和汉语翻译。随后网上找一些简易的难题,并融合明细写一些简易的回答(或是师兄师姐读过的题型,假如能寻找得话)。为此来塑造针对CW的了解,点滴积累便会接到收益,那样渐渐地的你也就会触到方式了。

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学术研究创作 Academic Writing 

What is academic style writing?

什么是“学术研究创作”?

My definition of academic writing is a clear and concise way of writing that expresses your ideas and understanding of a subject, often using more formal vocabulary, a defined structure, and clear evidence to support your arguments.

我针对学术研究创作的界定便是:用简洁明了的語言书面形式论述你针对题型的念头和了解,大部分的三大要素是宣布英文(英语口语滴,不好),规范的构造和清晰的直接证据。

How do I adopt an academic style in my writing?

选用这类设计风格难不会太难?

Be objective: Try to avoid using the first person. Any arguments you present should be presented in the third person or in a way which does not stress your personal opinion too strongly e.g.: ‘It could be said that…’ or ‘Some have argued that…’ etc, (unless specified by your institution that they want you to include personal opinions throughout). You may need to present your final opinion in the conclusion however. Remember to support your views with evidence from other sources.

客观性而言:尽量减少应用第一人称。第三人称可以维持创作者(你)和用户中间的较大 间距,此后一清二楚地论述彼此的见解,并且也不会促使你的见解尤其生硬。毕业论文往往能反映普遍性是由于毕业论文致力于出示真正信息内容;直接的添加你自己的建议很可能歪曲毕业论文的想要(成千上万还记得,大家既并不是专家教授、研究者,也不是博士研究生、博士研究生;我们自己的认为是无论用的,只有找高手来适用大家。简言之便是求抱抱)。例如:与‘我觉得’或‘一件事而言’对比,‘能够那么说’和‘有些人觉得’这种语句听起来更客观性可靠,更真正,并不是么?尽管说在毕业论文的末尾很有可能想要你明确提出一点自身的介绍,可是一定记牢每时每刻要有客观性直接证据来支撑点你的见解。

Structure your writing: Essays usually include an introduction, paragraphs covering different aspects of the subject (these may be divided into section i.e.: methodology, results etc) and a solid conclusion at the end. Each paragraph must also use this formula: P.E.E, which means Point, Example, and Explain. If you follow this basic structure for all paragraphs, I am sure you will start to make your writing better!

构造:期刊论文的架构一般 可分离到三个一部分:总论,行为主体和结果,而行为主体还可以分离成不一样一部分。不管多大多数小,每一个文章段落都应当用一种简易而合理的规范文件格式: P.E.E规范文件格式(Point见解,Example事例,Explain表述剖析, 姓名难听,但是的确这般)。这就是写好毕业论文的关键一步。

Appropriate Language: Use more formal language and avoid contractions, slang or informal expressions. Instead use linking words and connecting phrases, such as, additionally, in contrast, in order to, as a consequence, despite the fact that etc.

写毕业论文时该用宣布英文,而不是网络用词和俚语。必需时还记得用连词,让左右句,左右段能联络起來。(实际上大家看见不畅达的毕业论文就早已头疼了,是不容易给高分数的)!

Remember to use your tenses appropriately. If you are talking about something which was said or done in the past, use the past tense. But if you are talking about something which is still true now or has an impact in the present, use the present tense e.g.: Smith stated that writing an essay requires certain skills (2010). Smith’s point illustrates that students need to work hard to achieve well (present).

还想得起中学教师们教你一直在什么情况用过去式和现在时么?以往做的事情 – 过去时;如今做着的事情 – 现在时——用在毕业论文里都不除外。比如: “The business introduced (过去时)

a new marketing campaign last year” 比照 “The business is currently creating (如今式)a new marketing campaign”. 但是假如你常说的事尽管产生过去,可到迄今为止一直沒有转变,或是是对现在有危害,那也是要用如今一会儿并不是过去式。

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标点符号和拼读 Punctuation and Spelling

Why is punctuation and spelling important?

为何标点符号和拼读很重要?

Poor grammar is something us lecturers cannot stand. When writing an essay, it is important to remember your basic English skills, for example using articles, basic sentence structure and basic punctuation. Getting the basic punctuation and grammar right will mean the reader becomes more involved in your actual arguments, rather than struggling to understand the meaning of what you have written. It can also gain you extra marks overall.

假如你的毕业论文有很多拼读、标点这类的难题时,大家第一反应便是感觉你对毕业论文尤其随意,所以说,在写的情况下最先要还记得便是应用基本的英语专业技能,例如基础句型、标点这些。恰当的应用标点符号和英语的语法,可以让阅读者(一般 是得分教师)更强的了解你的立论,而不是被费尽心机猜你写的是啥,或是是被烂英语的语法虐的想撞树。因此,好的英语的语法会让你大大加分的(这也是为什么许多 院校的评定标准里,会出现英语的语法一项)。

What can I do to improve in this area?

我觉得发展发展!能够给我么?

Try to follow the basic structure for paragraphs (P.E.E.), as outlined above. Also get someone else to check your work if possible and see if they can understand your meaning. Additionally, always spell check your work before submitting and factor in time to check your work before the final submission – checking should be part of the essay writing process!

根据所述的P.E.E规范文件格式,能够防止拼写错误。此外,假如如果可以的话,请人来帮你查验,或是仅仅看一下她们了解的和你要论述的是否一样。最终,在提交之前,一定要再检查一下拼读。

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毕业论文表述 Presentation

Why good presentation can get you higher marks – what do markers looks for?

为何好的毕业论文表述能帮你的高分数?得分教师找的是啥?

I have realised throughout my experience that many students look at the mark scheme for presentation and see it as insignificant, due to the overall marking of their assignment. Thinking like this will definitely hinder your chances of getting a 1st or 2:1. When marking dissertations, I believe a well-written academic piece owes itself to a good structure. Ensure you follow the guidelines from your institution and have clearly defined sections and paragraphs. Also ensure that paragraphs are not too long and that sentences are concise and meaningful. If your marker has to go back and read sentences and paragraphs again, they are likely to give you lower marks, so ensure you make your arguments clearly and also reference appropriately.

毕业论文表述是十分关键却又非常容易被忽视的一件事,由于毕业论文表述这一项的得分权重值也不太高。但要是由于那样也不高度重视表述得话,那么就大部分跟一等或是二等一say拜拜了。在我做得分教师时,我本人确信绝大多数好毕业论文架构当然清楚。一定要对着院校的规定写,并且文章段落长短有效,语句含意清楚,引入恰当。假如你的得分教师必须一再转过头读前边的语句,那麼她们很可能不容易让你高分数。

毕业论文论述规定 General Presentation Requirements for Dissertations

Below is a basic outline of a dissertation or essay structure (this can vary between institutions slightly):

一般毕业论文架构的轮廊以下:

Abstract

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Literature Review

Chapter 3. Methodology

Chapter 4. Results and Analysis

Chapter 5. Discussion

Chapter 6. Conclusion

Bibliography & Appendices

摘要

第一章:概论

第二章:参考文献

第三章:研究思路

第四章:科学研究結果和剖析

第五章:探讨

第六章:结果

参考文献

It’s a good idea to write an overall plan outlining what you need to cover in each chapter.

Think of a dissertation like a series of linked essays; each chapter is self-contained and has its own purpose, but they all connect together to contribute to the argument of your dissertation. The chapters don’t have to all be the same length – some can be longer because they are more detailed (like the literature review) and others can be shorter because they are summarising and finalising information (like the conclusion).

逐渐写毕业论文前最好是制订一个方案架构,详细描述每一个章的內容。尤其是大毕业论文,一片大毕业论文就好像一系列的连接在一起的论文。每一章规定不一样,并且有自身的目地。可是把他们连起來便是你的一篇论文。每一个章节目录不一定一样长,例如参考文献的內容就需要比结果多。

I hope you are now armed with the knowledge to write a great dissertation! If you still have any questions, please contact me or the client care support team at CNA.

讲了这么多,期待学生们记牢这种小窍门。假如有没有什么难题,热烈欢迎在线留言。

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