Must-Read Series Part 1: A lecturer’s guide to writing a good dissertation – Understanding Plagiarism, Ghost-writing and Referencing.
观众们云：what are you 弄啥类？
I will be giving you an inside look into the tips and tricks that can help you improve your dissertation. As a university lecturer, I understand the many difficulties international students face before they even put pen to paper. Terms like plagiarism, and referencing confuse even the most able students – but not anymore. In this edition of our Must-Read Series, I will demystify Plagiarism, Ghost-writing and Referencing.
We’ve all heard the phrase, but what does it really mean? Essentially, plagiarism refers to a student using statements made by others without referencing them. If you find yourself in the situation where you are trying to pretend that a piece of work is your own when it really is not, then that is considered plagiarism.
Why is it so serious?
Plagiarism is taken very seriously because it is simply a form of cheating. Now you may have heard stories about a ‘friend-of-a-friend’ escaping the watchful eye of their lecturers and universities, but consider this sheer luck and are likely to use Turnitin which detects any possible plagiarism from your submitted work. At worst, some may even consider removing a student from their programme of study or the university, if they repeatedly submit plagiarised work.
What should I remember?
The main thing to remember is to plan your time and reference appropriately. Unfortunately, plagiarism often occurs from students forgetting to use in-text citations, footnotes and bibliographies (this will be covered in the last section). We lecturers do want you to showcase your wide reading and therefore want you to include referenced arguments made by experts. It would be easier if you could mark the references whilst you are writing the essay, and consolidate the bibliography after finish writing. Nowadays, many reference generating servises are available online, you may would like to have a try.
“剽窃”这诗人人都听过，但到底是个什么意思？实际上，剽窃是指本来引入了别人说过得话或者读过的语句，却不事前申明一下自身在引入，只是装作自身原創。就如同你写了句全球人都了解的’To be or not to be, it is a problem.’ 在自己的文章里，但沒有标明它是莎翁的语句，那即使作是剽窃啦！
最关键要做的事儿，实际上便是一定要还记得科学安排你的写毕业论文時间，而且始终还记得要标明“引入”啦！许多 情况下很遗憾的是，学生们忘记了要应用文章内容中引入，论文脚注，也有参考文献文件目录（今日文章内容的最终一段会实际表述这三项哦）。做为教师，我们都是真心实意期待见到学生们为了更好地写毕业论文干了很多的阅读文章，因此期待大家能够把这些引入过的句子都标明出去，也便捷大家恰当有效的给大家毕业论文评分啦。最好能在写的情况下就标识reference，而且梳理bibliography。并且如今许多 网址都能帮大伙儿整齐，何不试一下。
Referencing (aka citing)
Importance of referencing. As mentioned previously, referencing, also known as citing, is a key area which often gets overlooked by many students, due to its low mark allocation. But remember, without referencing appropriately, you could be caught for plagiarism.
I would describe referencing as a method to highlight the information sources used in the body of any text. Referencing is used to acknowledge statements or quotes from an expert, and to allow the reader to trace the source. Please use published sources as references such as academic textbooks, journals (e.g. business journals), newspapers (broadsheet newspapers, not tabloid newspapers), and government sources (such as a range of news websites) rather than sources whereby it is often not possible to know the writer and therefore have no idea of the level of trustworthiness of the source (such as Wikipedia). If you would like to cite other’s dissertation, it is usually viable for those written by PHDs, as other dissertations are normally not published, and may result in suspicision of plagiarism.
What supervisors look for?
Dissertation supervisors and lecturers expect you and every other student to follow the rules set by a specific referencing system, i.e. Harvard-style or Chicago. Firstly you need to ensure you understand what these rules are for each type of source you use (e.g. online source, book, journal, newspaper, etc). Once you have the understanding you must adhere to those given rules. For example, if you put forth an argument from ‘expert A’, it is essential to include their name and date of source in brackets, within the text.
How to reference i.e. Harvard Template/Example
To fully understand the referencing method for commonly used materials, make sure to visit your university library.
I hope you are now armed with the knowledge to write a great dissertation!
Last but not least, I would like to emphasize again that integrity is always the most important thing that UK schools and teachers concerns. You may have noticed that there have been more examinations especially set for Chinese students these years. This is actually a method that schools use to assess the true ability of students again, reducing the chance of plagiarism and ghost-writing being neglected.
Welcome back students! As autumn is well under way, many of us have already scoured our wardrobes for coats and scarfs, and the kitchen for that warm cup of coco. But unfortunately October never disappoints in bringing along assignments, assignments and more assignments. To make sure you hit the new term running, I will be giving you an inside look into the tips and tricks that can help you improve your dissertation. As a university lecturer, I understand the many difficulties international students face when structuring and presenting their work. Let this be a thing of the past. In this edition of our Must-Read Series, I will break down the best way of producing an A-grade presented and composed piece of work.
欢迎回来！一转眼秋季就到；小热裤也都无法穿了；商场里热巧也逐渐愈来愈火爆了。自然也有: 工作，工作，工作！别担心，为了更好地帮你成功挺过这人生中最黑喑的阶段， 今日要告知大伙儿写毕业论文的各种各样小窍门，各种各样小秘笈。尽管我是老师，但依然会深有体会（委媛：终究也受虐过）；绝大多数留学人员都是会遭遇写毕业论文的一系列难题。我要做的便是将你从这次恶梦中解救出来（自然并不是叫你找代笔啦）！在今天本文里我想教大伙儿四个关键的要素：CW，学术研究写作风格，标点符号和拼读及其毕业论文描述。
(CW) Command Words
What are ‘command words’?
Ah, good ol’ command words. When I was a student, it took me a long time to understand what they are and why getting top marks depends on your understanding of them. The best definition of a command word is, the main verbs that appear in an assessment question. Command words indicate what approach should be applied to answering the question.
听见Commands word这个词，可能许多 同学们便会心痛一地。在我都念书的情况下，因为我花了很长期才搞清楚CW是到底是啥，为何它对毕业论文考试成绩那么关键。我认为，CW是难题里最关键的形容词，这决策着毕业论文应当采用哪样方式来解答问题。
“Compare the differences between…” Compare: discuss two or more things in terms of their similarities and differences.
“Please evaluate…” Evaluate: judge; criticise in terms of impact/significance, and investigate the implications.
“Assess the reasons why…” Assess: decide the value of; judge; measure the importance of something.
词组二: “点评一下”（一般 就是指对一件事或角色开展分辨、剖析后的结果），
Are they really important?
In short, yes. Comprehending command words is a common issue for a range of students I work with. A misunderstanding of the command word will lead to you misunderstanding the question. If, for example, you are asked to ‘evaluate’ the use of a business model by a particular organisation, but you end up simply ‘describing’ it instead, there is a strong likelihood that the marker will consider your written response to be descriptive rather than evaluative; therefore not really providing an appropriate response to the actual task given. In the end marks will be taken off.
Okay, but what should I do?
Make a list of command words and find each definition. When you have time, I suggest you look online for basic assignment questions and practise writing short answers. Every little bit helps! Remember, understanding command words is a most significant step towards understanding what the assessment requires. In turn, you will be able to research and write your response effectively.
学术研究创作 Academic Writing
What is academic style writing?
My definition of academic writing is a clear and concise way of writing that expresses your ideas and understanding of a subject, often using more formal vocabulary, a defined structure, and clear evidence to support your arguments.
How do I adopt an academic style in my writing?
Be objective: Try to avoid using the first person. Any arguments you present should be presented in the third person or in a way which does not stress your personal opinion too strongly e.g.: ‘It could be said that…’ or ‘Some have argued that…’ etc, (unless specified by your institution that they want you to include personal opinions throughout). You may need to present your final opinion in the conclusion however. Remember to support your views with evidence from other sources.
Structure your writing: Essays usually include an introduction, paragraphs covering different aspects of the subject (these may be divided into section i.e.: methodology, results etc) and a solid conclusion at the end. Each paragraph must also use this formula: P.E.E, which means Point, Example, and Explain. If you follow this basic structure for all paragraphs, I am sure you will start to make your writing better!
构造：期刊论文的架构一般 可分离到三个一部分：总论，行为主体和结果，而行为主体还可以分离成不一样一部分。不管多大多数小，每一个文章段落都应当用一种简易而合理的规范文件格式: P.E.E规范文件格式(Point见解，Example事例，Explain表述剖析， 姓名难听，但是的确这般)。这就是写好毕业论文的关键一步。
Appropriate Language: Use more formal language and avoid contractions, slang or informal expressions. Instead use linking words and connecting phrases, such as, additionally, in contrast, in order to, as a consequence, despite the fact that etc.
Remember to use your tenses appropriately. If you are talking about something which was said or done in the past, use the past tense. But if you are talking about something which is still true now or has an impact in the present, use the present tense e.g.: Smith stated that writing an essay requires certain skills (2010). Smith’s point illustrates that students need to work hard to achieve well (present).
还想得起中学教师们教你一直在什么情况用过去式和现在时么？以往做的事情 – 过去时；如今做着的事情 – 现在时——用在毕业论文里都不除外。比如: “The business introduced （过去时）
a new marketing campaign last year” 比照 “The business is currently creating （如今式）a new marketing campaign”. 但是假如你常说的事尽管产生过去，可到迄今为止一直沒有转变，或是是对现在有危害，那也是要用如今一会儿并不是过去式。
标点符号和拼读 Punctuation and Spelling
Why is punctuation and spelling important?
Poor grammar is something us lecturers cannot stand. When writing an essay, it is important to remember your basic English skills, for example using articles, basic sentence structure and basic punctuation. Getting the basic punctuation and grammar right will mean the reader becomes more involved in your actual arguments, rather than struggling to understand the meaning of what you have written. It can also gain you extra marks overall.
假如你的毕业论文有很多拼读、标点这类的难题时，大家第一反应便是感觉你对毕业论文尤其随意，所以说，在写的情况下最先要还记得便是应用基本的英语专业技能，例如基础句型、标点这些。恰当的应用标点符号和英语的语法，可以让阅读者（一般 是得分教师）更强的了解你的立论，而不是被费尽心机猜你写的是啥，或是是被烂英语的语法虐的想撞树。因此，好的英语的语法会让你大大加分的（这也是为什么许多 院校的评定标准里，会出现英语的语法一项）。
What can I do to improve in this area?
Try to follow the basic structure for paragraphs (P.E.E.), as outlined above. Also get someone else to check your work if possible and see if they can understand your meaning. Additionally, always spell check your work before submitting and factor in time to check your work before the final submission – checking should be part of the essay writing process!
Why good presentation can get you higher marks – what do markers looks for?
I have realised throughout my experience that many students look at the mark scheme for presentation and see it as insignificant, due to the overall marking of their assignment. Thinking like this will definitely hinder your chances of getting a 1st or 2:1. When marking dissertations, I believe a well-written academic piece owes itself to a good structure. Ensure you follow the guidelines from your institution and have clearly defined sections and paragraphs. Also ensure that paragraphs are not too long and that sentences are concise and meaningful. If your marker has to go back and read sentences and paragraphs again, they are likely to give you lower marks, so ensure you make your arguments clearly and also reference appropriately.
毕业论文论述规定 General Presentation Requirements for Dissertations
Below is a basic outline of a dissertation or essay structure (this can vary between institutions slightly):
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Literature Review
Chapter 3. Methodology
Chapter 4. Results and Analysis
Chapter 5. Discussion
Chapter 6. Conclusion
Bibliography & Appendices
It’s a good idea to write an overall plan outlining what you need to cover in each chapter.
Think of a dissertation like a series of linked essays; each chapter is self-contained and has its own purpose, but they all connect together to contribute to the argument of your dissertation. The chapters don’t have to all be the same length – some can be longer because they are more detailed (like the literature review) and others can be shorter because they are summarising and finalising information (like the conclusion).
I hope you are now armed with the knowledge to write a great dissertation! If you still have any questions, please contact me or the client care support team at CNA.