地理作业代写 GEOGRAPHY W12: Maps and Spatial Reasoning

GEOGRAPHY W12: Maps and Spatial Reasoning

地理作业代写 You’ve learned many different ways that you can represent data and modify your maps. Geographer Mark Monmonier argues that all of

Elements of a Map  地理作业代写

There are several key elements that should be included each time a map is created in order to aid the viewer in understanding that map and to document the source of the geographic information used. Below you will find descriptions of cartographic elements (corresponding to the figure below) that are commonly found on a map layout. Some maps have all elements or more, while other maps may only contain a few of them.


  1. Data Frame: The data frame is the portion of the map that displays the data layers, and can be described by three components:
    a. Figure: The thing or place being mapped is called the figure of the map, e.g. the continental United States.
    b. Ground: The figure is juxtaposed against the ground of the map, or in other words, the background, e.g. the countries outside of the United States and the oceans.
    c. Frame: Maps often have a frame, a line drawn around the figure and ground, that acts as a picture frame does for a picture. The more technical term neatline is also used.


  2. Title: The title is a short, descriptive text typically at or near the top of the map that should provide some detail about the map’s content without being too wordy or descriptive. Map titles often include all or some of the following components: the subject of the map, the year, the spatial extent, the mapping resolution, and/or the data source.


3. Legend: The legend lists the symbols used and explains what is being mapped. Labeling the units in the legend is important so the audience can properly understand the data being mapped.


  1. Source/Credits: For transparency purposes, provide attribution to the source of the data (the place, company, person, or agency that made the data) so that the audience can explore the data further. Knowing who made the map can help the reader better gauge the accuracy and reliability of the data. Source attribution can be as simple as a short text annotation near the bottom of the map, or it can include more detailed information.


  2. Scale: The scale explains the relationship of the data frame extent to the real world. This can be shown either as a representative fraction or graphically in the form of a scale bar, as in the map below. Maps that are not to scale should be noted as such. There are times when the scale is so obvious that it is omitted from a map, for example a map of the entire world does not typically have a scale bar on it, because everyone has a general understanding of how large the world is.


地理作业代写

Lying with Maps

You’ve learned many different ways that you can represent data and modify your maps. Geographer Mark Monmonier argues that all of these little modifications—smoothing of geographic features, choices about classification scheme, aggregation of data, or clever use of hue—represent little “lies.” White lies include all sorts of cartographic strategies, including symbolization, generalization, and unintentionally misleading mistakes. Then there are the other kinds of lies—propaganda maps, advertising maps, maps for military defense and disinformation, and maps that push a particular political perspective.

EXERCISE (12 points total)

Review the links below (also included on GauchoSpace). Choose one map (any of the maps on the websites can be used) to critique. Describe 5 ideas for how the map could be improved or made more accurate. Think about map elements and cartographic strategies that can be improved upon or changed.

Use the resources on GauchoSpace for ideas.
Choose any of the maps on any of the websites below to critique:
● Thrillist interesting maps of America
● Cartographic propaganda
● Nine-dash line
● Old maps of the British Empire

Your total response should be approximately 250 words. Your assignment should include:

● The map you are critiquing. Include the image reference in your assignment. (1 pt)
● Describe the purpose of the map. (1 pt)
● Provide 5 different ideas for improving the map or making it more accurate. Include a
justification for why each idea would improve the map. (10 pts)

This concludes Lab 6! Remember to type up all answers on a Word document, convert files to PDF and post them on GauchoSpace by the deadline.

REFERENCES  地理作业代写

Deluca, E. and Bonsal, D. (2017) Design and Symbolization. In Manson, S. M. (Ed) (2017). Mapping, Society, and Technology. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing.
https://open.lib.umn.edu/mapping/chapter/4-design-and-symbolization/
Deluca, E. and Nelson, S. (2017) Lying with Maps. In Manson, S. M. (Ed) (2017). Mapping, Society, and
Technology. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing.
https://open.lib.umn.edu/mapping/chapter/7-lying-with-maps/

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