LIBERALIZATION OF LOGICAL POSITIVISM
哲学论文代写 This is not an empirical proposition, but a linguistic one.This proposition simply records the fact that. As a result of certain verbal
According to Ayer, the central criterion of meaning of a logical positivist project is the need to know how to test the proposition it is intended to express.If he knew what observations would lead him, under certain conditions, to accept the proposition as true or reject it as false. Then it is a false proposition, if not a tautology. Ayer never blindly accepted any philosophical point of view and had his own views.
Although his views can not be said to have high originality, but can show his philosophical style. 哲学论文代写
For example, Schlick, like Carnap, is critical of the principle of proof argument. Shrik argued that the meaning of a proposition is its method of verification. In other words, whether a proposition is meaningful or not must be determined by observing whether it is true or false. As for metaphysical propositions. They have no epistemological significance because in principle they have no possibility of such verification.
Carnup thought Schlick's statement of the principle of verification and the requirement of verifiability is too simplistic. Not only do they place narrow limits on the language of science, but they exclude not only metaphysical sentences, but also scientific ones. We can only require confirmation or confirmation. Not complete verification. For a scientific sentence. For all systems of scientific theory are probabilistic in principle (Wiggins, 1991). 哲学论文代写
Ayer fully agrees with Carnap's criticism of Schlick. But he does not agree with Carnap's view of test instead of confirmation. He thinks that the shortcoming of Schlick's confirmation principle is that it ignores the two-layer nature of the confirmation principle: strong confirmation and weak confirmation, and absolutes it.
What Ayer calls strong verifiability requires is that the meaningfulness of a proposition depends on whether it can be directly observed to be true or false. Weak verifiability requires that a proposition be true or false depending on whether it relates to the observations of the proposition. Ayer takes the weak standard of verifiability and claims that by applying it we can shed light on the meaninglessness of metaphysics. Because the characteristic of any metaphysics is that it excludes in principle any connection with empirical observation: they are in principle transcendental.
Ayer believed that a material thing could not be in two places at once.
This is not an empirical proposition, but a linguistic one.This proposition simply records the fact that. As a result of certain verbal conventions, the proposition that two sensory contents appear in the same visual or tactile sensory field is incompatible with the proposition that they belong to the same material thing.Thus, Ayer argues that this is a necessary fact, and that physical objects are logical structures based on sensory data.
For example, "the sun is a thing" = the word "sun" is a thing.Firstly, as far as the propositions of words are concerned, manifest definitions refer to the definitions and relations of characters, but not to the signs of things and relations. According to Ayer, sentences, whether about physics or everyday life. Can finally be clarified in such a way that they are translated into sentences of sensory content.And this indicate that if I have such and such an objective event. I have such and such a sensory content (Stoljar, 1993).
Secondly, a table is a logical structure composed of meaningful contents.The traditional problem of perception becomes a problem of the actual rules for translating sentences about material things into sentences about sense-content.Thirdly, sets of statements about sensory experience and statements about physical objects do not correspond to each other.While acknowledging this, Ayer does not mean that the object stated by the physical object is not related to the sensory content.And Ayer defended it with what he called the Qualia theory.
Ayer argues that no finite set of observations can be equated with a conclusion about a material thing. 哲学论文代写
However, generating definitions does have an effect on presenting a type of statement.In order to make the relevant political statements correct. The meaning of the political statements is also properly clarified.As for the relation between the content of sense and the hypothesis of experience, Ayer still thinks that it can be explained in Hume's way.
That is, we propose a hypothesis of the physical object based on the content or structure of this relation.According to Ayer, if we distinguish between the psychological objects of this and that. And between this and that, then we should distinguish different logical constructions in each case.It is clear that Ayer. By applying Hume's theory of sensation. Has thrown himself into the neutral monism of Mach's theory of elements and Russell's theory of logical structure. 哲学论文代写
But Ayer does not deny that physicalism encounters such difficulties that they are not easily surmountable.
So the test of an empirical statement must avoid words that are relevant to or contrary to anyone and replace them with words that are neutral.In the process of testing scientific propositions. They try to avoid words related to public objects or individual subjects, and replace the word intersubjective with subjective. In this way, it is hoped to avoid the confusion caused by the principal elements of traditional metaphysics: subject and object, subjectivity and objectivity. 哲学论文代写
Ayer pointed out that the validity of a synthetic proposition depends entirely on the positive and negative relationship between the proposition and the object, and it is impossible to substitute it with any other method. If consistency or consistency between propositions and systems is taken as the criterion of truth. Then a tale can also be regarded as a historical record. Provided that we treat its plot so as not to reveal any contradictions (Ayer, 2012). Therefore, Philosophical propositions are not factual, but linguistic.
Ayer, A. J. (2012). Language, truth and logic (Vol. 1). Courier Corporation.
Stoljar, D. (1993). Emotivism and truth conditions. Philosophical Studies, 70(1), 81-101.
Wiggins, D. (1991). Ayer’s Ethical Theory: Emotivism or Subjectivism?’. AJ Ayer: Memorial Essays, 181-96.