下边为大伙儿梳理一篇出色的assignment代笔范例-Dante's political thought，供大伙儿参照学习培训，这篇毕业论文探讨了但丁的思想政治。但丁不但是中古时代西班牙文艺复兴时期中最杰出的作家，并且還是一位一生从业政治斗争的政治学家和有新政冶见解的现实主义政冶教育家。在他的经典著作《神曲》和《论世界帝国》中，都最能体现他的思想政治并阐述了其关键特点和危害。尽管但丁的思想政治具备独特的时代特点，但他的观念仍然在西方国家政冶哲学史上占据关键的影响力。
As we all know,Dante is a poet,a great writer.What is less known is that he was a lifelong political activist and a humanist political thinker with new political views.His political thoughts were mainly reflected in divine comedy and on world empire.Among them,the divine comedy is composed of hell,purgatory and heaven.It is a magical description of Dante's fantasy three worlds,mainly expressing his idea of separation of church and state.He will be a hypocrite,corrupt officials,the evil of the Pope,making prosecution,usurer,mixed,the traitors in different layer and everlasting punishment in hell,and the wise monarch,academia of saints and faithful priest in meteorological majestic,colorful,full of love and joy of heaven,only they can enjoy in this eternal happiness.In this process,Dante carefully arranged two characters as his mentor,one is a symbol of reason,knowledge of Virgil,one is his lover-beatrice,she symbolizes faith,piety.We can see from the divine comedy that Virgil,a symbol of reason,is not yet qualified to enter heaven,and can only act as a guide for the poet in the"heaven on earth",while beatrice,a symbol of faith,is qualified to lead him into the"kingdom in heaven".This clearly shows that he attacked the church,hated the Pope's imperiousness and greed,criticized the Pope for interfering in the power of secular monarchs,and longed for the separation of church and state and the reunification of the motherland,but he was not against Christianity,he was not against faith,but put faith above reason.What he wants to maintain is that the Italian nation and the entire human race must,under the enlightenment of faith,regulate behavior with reason,implement moral perfection and the constant transcendence of spiritual realm,so as to realize the highest ideal and finally move towards a bright future.
Dante's realistic criticism of the church in the divine comedy mainly focuses on the corruption of the church from the moral perspective,which was not completely regarded as hostility and offense to the church at that time.On the contrary,the church at that time even took the divine comedy as the textbook of moralizing,because its moral image was basically consistent with its own moral image declared by the church.What the church really couldn't allow was his idea of separation of church and state,which got him into a slump at first because of the separation of church and state,and then started to turn the situation around because of the high comments made by gravener and vico.This makes Dante move towards the lofty status of the holy,and his political thought has gradually been highly valued.The political idea of the separation of church and state and the discourse on the world empire became the focus of the Italian and even European nations in this era,and he became the"father of Italian poetry"in the eyes of italians in the 19th century.Later,he was praised by Shelley,byron,Jacob burkhart,forsyth and others.However,Dante's idea of the separation of church and state is always accompanied by religious thoughts,which is inevitably bound by certain restrictions and has obvious characteristics of The Times.
His other political treatise,on world empires,took a more radical and obvious view.Careful reading reveals that his expression not only perfected the idea of the separation of church and state,but also highlighted his idea of a world empire.Rome united the world by right;Earthly sovereignty is given directly by god and not by the Pope.In this work,Dante placed his hope on the holy Roman emperor Henry vii,who was hated by the white party for writing to him.Finally,the death of Henry vii also declared that Dante's dream had come to nothing.His dream was to seek an enlightened monarch to build a universal empire.Such an empire,he thought,should be unified by a secular government,separate church from state,the only government that ruled the world.Only in this way can man avoid war,the avarice and decay of the church,the intrigues and intrigues of the poets,and the whole world be in harmony.Its obvious feature is that this kind of monarchy is not a democracy,but this kind of monarchy is different from the absolute monarchy,and this kind of monarchy has some similarities with the current European Union.Thus it can be seen that the political ideal of the independence of the royal power and the religious power and the thought of the unity of the future world are the highest political goals that Dante will pursue in his life.In his imagined world empire,Henry vii was the representative sent by god,who existed as the judge of all,and whose will was the basis of all justice.This again confirms that Dante does not give up faith,that god is omnipresent and omnipotent in his mind,and that in the theory of the unified world of the holy Roman empire,in addition to the principle of reason,he also argues according to the principle of Christian faith,that the birth of Christ shows that the dominion of Rome is divine.At the same time,he believed that earthly sovereignty came directly from god,not from the Pope.He sees the secular sovereign and the Pope as two unitary entities without any subordination,and these two unitary entities are unified with god,because their power is directly given by god,and only god can really rule over human beings,they are just the executive tools of god.
In the divine comedy,Dante will own infinite passion and bizarre fantasy,combining the evaluation of reality with faith in"the kingdom of heaven is"sincere,showing his amazing imagination,not only the symbol with singular,dream,for the characteristics of the middle ages to the peak of literature and art,also very clearly expressed his political views.For example,he expressed his strong dissatisfaction with the current political situation in Florence,no matter how prosperous the business in Florence was at that time,it was just a manifestation of greed in his eyes.The strongest political attitude expressed by him is to firmly oppose the greed and corruption of the Pope,and sternly accuse them of meddling in the secular power,believing that it is their greed that causes the political chaos in their hometown.Therefore,Dante will place them in hell to be punished forever.In addition,Dante hopes that the holy Roman empire can give Italy a unified and revitalized,criticizing the invasion of the French lords.All of these are expressed by Dante through the divine,which shows that his political thought is highly theological.
In the empire of the world,Dante almost always USES a theological point of view to justify his theory.This,like the divine comedy,also confirms the theological color of his political views,which indicates that his political dreams have to be somewhat utopian.
The utopian nature of political ideals was also determined by the characteristics of his time.13~14 century is the era of religious activities active,the Pope's authoritarian rule,and the use of force by brutal repression of heresy,make its status rises to the status of the Christian world,and also formed a sense of the Pope of the crisis of faith,the city's campaign against priests,and makes this crisis as the rotting of the Catholic church,internal struggle and gradually deepened.The Pope has always seen Italy as his sphere of influence,in conflict with the emperor.The Italian people wanted their country to be united,and the Pope's struggle with the emperor and their individual ambitions were obstacles.They adopted a policy of divide and rule lest a united Italy should threaten their rule.The intricate contradictions make Italy's political life extremely active.The persecution between political enemies and the conflicts of interests between different classes are often manifested in the most brutal forms.In such a context,it is impossible for any thinking Florentine not to be strongly influenced by these activities,and Dante is no exception.So no matter how vehemently he opposed the church,he was still tied to theology,and ultimately exiled for political cruelty.As a homeless person,Dante,nomadic life of vagrancy,painful experience of exile and thought of the longing for returning to homeland,dear ones,make he yearned for a unified polity,full of justice,harmony in this regime under the freedom of the people can live a happy life,all this is deeply affecting the Dante,and reflected in his political thought,this is his world unified theory.In addition,the time of the fiorentina in addition to the political chaos,also is in her era of Western Europe began to germination of capitalism,the development of commodity economy,currency increasingly prevalent,lead to natural economy rapidly towards disintegration,the city develop continuously,on the basis of the old city also appeared a large number of new cities.As a result,the ranks of the citizen class grew stronger and stronger,including businessmen,workshop owners,small handicraft workers,etc.As a new political force,they entered the historical stage.As their economic status gradually increased,they increasingly felt the importance of political power.They demanded free trade,opposed papacy,supported the monarchy,and wanted to end feudal rule and achieve national unity.This is exactly the reflection of Dante's political thought in this era.However,the emerging civil class was still weak and many conditions were not mature enough,so their ultimate dream and pursuit had to be shattered in the fierce struggle between the church and the royal power.Even though Henry vii,the emperor of the holy Roman empire,had brought some light to the royal power,it was still extinguished because of the strong power of the religious power.
To sum up,although Dante's theory of world unity has its reasonable side,because of the characteristics of the time,Dante cannot get rid of the shackles of theology,and his political ideal must become a fantasy.
Dante's political thought was born in an era of new and old,which was not only influenced by the politics,economy and culture of Western Europe in the middle ages,but also had the trace of the new era when capitalism was budding,which profoundly reflected the political economy,ideology and culture of western European society that transited from the middle ages to the modern times.Both his literature and art,academic research and ideas have left a profound influence on later generations,and his political thoughts have unique personality characteristics and distinctive characteristics of The Times,which occupy an important position in the history of western political thoughts.
As we know petrarch and Machiavelli also inherited the Dante thought the basic elements,such as the rationality and belief in slam the door of the dream and the reality,so that on the basis of the law of national thought political theory become reality,for the formation of European nation-state provides a powerful ideological weapon.Dante theoretically for the first time put forward the political and religious equality,requires the separation of church and state,bribing the secular power against the church's point of view,the dominant religious doctrine is a brave the challenge of the nature to be followed by reformation and modern capitalism thoughts had a profound impact,so he is referred to as the"first religious reformer"Shelley.
It can be said that Dante's opposition to foreign invasion and his insistence on the separation of church and state made him the forerunner of the Italian Renaissance.His mission was to achieve the unification of the Italian nation state,which was consistent with the future of the Italian nation.So mazzini also regarded him as an icon of Italy's national revival.From then on,Dante became a bright banner of the Italian Renaissance movement in the 19th century.Under the guidance of this banner,italians urgently demanded to end the situation of papacy,foreign invasion,feudal separation and chaos,and achieve national independence and national unity.They fought bravely for this mission.Finally,with the development of the revolution,Italy established the Roman republic headed by mazzini in 1849 and established the kingdom of Italy in 1861.The Pope was subsequently deprived of secular power.It must be said that because of Dante's pioneering role in theory and later generations'efforts,his political ideal of separation of state and religion and national unity has been basically realized.
Finally,the unity that Dante desires is the unity of all human beings,he wants to establish the only government in the world,a unified world empire.This is the point where Dante has placed his hopes in the holy Roman empire,and his hopes have not been fulfilled and cannot be fulfilled,and this is a radical point.This reminds me of the two world wars initiated by Germany later.Is there any connection between their world hegemony theory and Dante's theory of world unity?This needs to be further discussed.