刑事犯罪代写 Violence-based masculinity and whiteness all come under right-wing extremism which is being largely neglected by the..
Violence-based masculinity and whiteness all come under right-wing extremism which is being largely neglected by the authorities in the US as well as in Canada including many other European nations. As mentioned in the article US Department of Homeland Security first released the assessment report on right-wing extremism entitled,
“Rightwing Extremism: Current Economic and Political Climate Fueling Resurgence in Radicalization and Recruitment” which was removed later on from every law enforcement and intelligence database. The same trend pervades Canada. Right-wing extremism is absent from the public agenda in many countries including Canada.
According to the authorities and social organizations such as Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), white supremacist activity and right-wing terrorism is far more prevalent than Islamic fundamentalism which is usually given more coverage than right-wing activities.
Jackson Katz's view can be explained by the post 9/11 circumstances which made every individual with brown skin or every Muslim a terrorist.
译文：问题 1 刑事犯罪代写
杰克逊卡茨的观点可以用 9/11 事件后的情况来解释，这种情况使每个棕色皮肤的人或每个穆斯林都成为恐怖分子。
The white domestic terrorist such as Timothy McVeigh was starkly ignored.
This is what Katz wants to explain here that women or men of color when act violently is usually covered by media as terrorists,on the other hand, white supremacists got very little or no coverage by mainstream media. Violent women are identified as a victim, mad or bad.
Some researchers who have tried making sense of the women’s violence stated that when women committed the violence that is considered to have breached two laws the first one is the law of land that does not permit any sort of violence and the other one is a natural law which depicts women as passive carers and not the ones who adopt violence.
That is why when women commit a crime or adopt violence they are given more coverage by mainstream media by men. As mentioned by Hird, “society has a narrow about situating a violent woman.” Americans who are considered to be far-right as individuals or groups are characterized as a fiercely nationalistic, anti-global,
这就是卡茨在这里想解释的，女性或有色人种在暴力行为时通常被媒体报道为恐怖分子，另一方面，白人至上主义者很少或根本没有被主流媒体报道。暴力女性被认定为受害者，无论是疯子还是坏人。 一些试图理解女性暴力的研究人员表示，当女性实施暴力时，被认为违反了两项法律，第一个是土地法，不允许任何形式的暴力，另一个是自然法。它将女性描述为被动的照顾者，而不是采取暴力的人。 这就是为什么当女性犯罪或采取暴力行为时，男性会更多地被主流媒体报道。正如 Hird 所提到的，“社会对于暴力女性的定位是狭隘的。”作为个人或团体被认为是极右翼的美国人被描述为极端民族主义、反全球、
supporters of individual liberty such as freedom of carrying guns and be free taxes.
They are believers of conspiracy theory and think that their national sovereignty is always at risk. They are always prepared for attack. They are the right-wing extremists, they adopt violence as they are xenophobic, racists. They are the masterminds of mass shootings, racial violence against men of color and women.
But they are rendered better than violent women, and violent colored men who merely commit minor crimes but are covered vigorously by media (Perry & Scrivens, 2019; Comack & Brickey, 2007).
他们信奉阴谋论，认为自己的国家主权始终处于危险之中。 他们时刻准备着进攻。 他们是右翼极端分子，他们采取暴力，因为他们是仇外的种族主义者。 他们是大规模枪击、针对有色人种和女性的种族暴力的策划者。
但她们比暴力女性和仅仅犯下轻微罪行但被媒体大力报道的暴力有色人种更好（Perry & Scrivens, 2019; Comack & Brickey, 2007）。
The two most important socio-political transformations that began during the fight against HIV /AIDS were when public health authorities started focusing on the wider public rather than just vulnerable groups to HIV (such as homosexual men and drug users). Secondly,
the response of the state to HIV/AIDS as the implementation of criminal law started persecuting the individuals who were considered to be transmitting the virus knowingly to another person. Thus, this law is being misused. As someone could be found guilty regardless of whether or not he or she has transmitted the virus to his or her sexual partner.
Around 115 people faced the nondisclosure of HIV charges during a sexual encounter, thus they were charged for transmitting the virus purposely in Canada. In the 1990s, people were charged with creating obnoxious feelings and transmitting a deadly thing regardless of whether they really have transmitted HIV or not. Therefore,
随着刑法的实施，国家对艾滋病毒/艾滋病的反应开始迫害被认为是故意将病毒传播给他人的个人。 因此，这条法律被滥用了。 因为无论某人是否已将病毒传播给他或她的性伴侣，都可能被判有罪。
大约 115 人在性接触期间面临不公开 HIV 指控，因此他们被指控在加拿大故意传播病毒。 在 1990 年代，人们被指控制造令人讨厌的感觉并传播致命的东西，而不管他们是否真的传播了 HIV。 所以，
crimes become less severe but the criminal charges got aggravated.
Aggravated sexual assault was the most common charge. Thus, the law regarding the criminalization of HIV nondisclosure persecuted people with HIV/AIDS. This law of criminalizing nondisclosure turn every individual who is HIV positive into potential sexual offenders.
The case of Diane further clarifies Patten and Symington’s perception regarding laws concerning HIV non-disclosure. Diane; a French-Canadian woman developed an intimate relationship with a man who met her at her Son’s soccer match. She told her that she is HIV positive after which he left her but they got back together and started living together.
After several years, he started abusing her. One day he broke her son’s hand upon defending his mother and beaten Diane violently. He was convicted for this violence but he falsely accused Diane that she did not disclose her HIV status and had unprotected sex with him.
严重的性侵犯是最常见的指控。 因此，关于将 HIV 保密定为刑事犯罪的法律迫害了 HIV/AIDS 患者。 这项将保密定为刑事犯罪的法律将每个 HIV 阳性的人都变成了潜在的性犯罪者。 Diane 的案例进一步阐明了 Patten 和 Symington 对 HIV 保密法的看法。 黛安; 一名法裔加拿大妇女与一名在她儿子的足球比赛中认识她的男子建立了亲密关系。 她告诉她她是艾滋病毒阳性，之后他离开了她，但他们又复合并开始同居。 几年后，他开始虐待她。 一天，他在为母亲辩护时折断了她儿子的手，并猛烈地殴打了黛安。 他因这种暴力行为而被定罪，但他错误地指责黛安没有透露她的艾滋病毒状况，并与他发生了无保护的性行为。
Diane was convicted falsely
This shows how the criminalization of HIV nondisclosure is being misused against people living with HIV. There are many other women like Diane and the majority of them are Indigenous with a history of physical abuse, alcoholism, poverty and drug addiction.
Another case of May is given who was convicted for nondisclosure and deported back to Thailand upon infecting her Canadian husband. May had a low level of literacy and she could not speak English she was oblivious of her status as nobody mentioned it on her immigration to Canada. Thus, she was falsely convicted (Patten & Symington; Kilty).
这表明 HIV 不披露的刑事定罪如何被滥用于 HIV 感染者。 还有很多像黛安这样的女性，她们中的大多数是土著人，有身体虐待、酗酒、贫穷和吸毒成瘾的历史。
梅的另一个案例是因未披露信息而被定罪，并在感染了她的加拿大丈夫后被驱逐回泰国。 梅的识字率很低，她不会说英语，她忘记了自己的身份，因为没有人在她移民加拿大时提到过这一点。 因此，她被错误地定罪（Patten & Symington; Kilty）。
The traditional familial realities are still unequal and gendered in various respects. These gender-based legal assumptions come under the unity doctrine where women are assumed to be more responsible towards domestic labor and children.
Feminists demand the equal treatment of fathers and oppose the gender-based legal norms as they lead to unequal social relations and put an extra burden on women affecting their health. A new Family Law Act has been introduced which changed the post-separation parenting regulation.
Marriage has become a contested terrain lately in Canada along with many other European nations. Gay and lesbian couples have lobbied for the right to get married stating that they require legal and social equality. According to the unity of doctrine, marriage has a special significance in religion,
译文：问题 4 刑事犯罪代写
婚姻近来与许多其他欧洲国家一样，已成为加拿大的一个有争议的领域。 男同性恋和女同性恋夫妇游说争取结婚权，声明他们需要法律和社会平等。 根据教义的统一性，婚姻在宗教中具有特殊的意义，
it is romantic as well sacred.
It is considered a highly regarded relationship between man and woman. It was considered a heart of Canadian society. The unity doctrine made the Canadian concede sexual relations, birth and childrearing only within the premises of marriage. They set penalties for those who strayed including ostracism by the community and the church.
These concepts of rewards and punishments made options other than marriage unthinkable. The doctrine of coverture described the roles of men and women profoundly.
William Blackstone a renowned commentator on laws perceived that marriage makes husband and wife into one person the legal existence and the very being of the women is suspended when they get married and her existence is integrated into her husband, under whom she gets protection.
它被认为是男女之间备受推崇的关系。 它被认为是加拿大社会的心脏。 统一原则使加拿大人只承认在婚姻范围内发生性关系、生育和育儿。 他们对那些误入歧途的人进行处罚，包括受到社区和教会的排斥。
Women are submissive to her husband.
However, the role of the husband was defined as the one who provides and protects. The wife is solely responsible to sustain the marriage. Before the 20th century, marriage was embedded into legal traditions and religion. The unity doctrine made the Canadian government realize that the state does have business in the nation’s business.
Thus they started implementing the gender-based legal regulation until a leader from the left-wing took the charge of the country like Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Unity doctrine did not let the Canadian access the divorce depicting the fragility of the institution called marriage.
The British Common Law made the families operate under strict patriarchal and hierarchical standards. This law stated that women have no rights to their property and children, thus children are the property of their fathers. These rules were power disincentive against women (Boyd; LENON).
然而，丈夫的角色被定义为提供和保护的人。 妻子全权负责维持婚姻。 在 20 世纪之前，婚姻被嵌入到法律传统和宗教中。 统一原则使加拿大政府意识到，国家确实与国家事务有关。
因此，他们开始实施基于性别的法律法规，直到左翼领导人像皮埃尔·埃利奥特·特鲁多 (Pierre Elliott Trudeau) 一样接管了国家。 团结教义并没有让加拿大人获得离婚，这描绘了称为婚姻的制度的脆弱性。
英国普通法使家庭在严格的父权制和等级标准下运作。 该法规定，妇女对自己的财产和子女没有权利，因此子女是父亲的财产。 这些规则对女性具有抑制作用（博伊德；列侬）。
In Canada, intimate partner violence constitutes nearly one-third of the reported crimes every year. According to victims, the legal system is complicating the efforts to eradicate this trend. One of such cases is of Susan who is so afraid of her ex-husband that she denied disclosing her identity in mainstream media.
Susan was repeatedly assaulted by her husband who even tried to strangle her and threatened her to death. However, he was found guilty for only one charge, he somehow drags out their divorce making Susan financially devastated that she eventually filed for bankruptcy. He claimed that her experience with the Canadian legal system was traumatic.
Today, she even regrets reporting those incidents of violence by her husband. There are plenty of stories like that of Susan that indicate the fragility of the Canadian legal system and how it is exacerbating the IPV incidents. One of the reasons behind this broken legal system of Canada regarding IPV was the existence of conflicting definitions of violence.
Moreover, it clearly states that the government of Canada does not have any overarching strategy to address the increasing incidence of family violence. According to Susan, some of the issues she has found in the Canadian legal system are communication failure,
今天，她甚至后悔报道了她丈夫的那些暴力事件。有很多像苏珊这样的故事表明加拿大法律体系的脆弱性以及它如何加剧 IPV 事件。加拿大关于 IPV 的这种破碎的法律体系背后的原因之一是存在相互冲突的暴力定义。
lacking clarity and staffing issues.
These issues jeopardized her case and turned her vulnerable. For instance, Susan once shared with authorities that she shared her number with the police officer when she was assaulted she called on that number repeatedly but the police officer never bothers to answer. She also shared that it took her months to check in with her ex-probation officer.
And when she learned that her husband has successfully petitioned the court to lift the restraining order she filed against her, it was already too late. Thus, Nneka MacGregor states that the criminal justice system regarding IPV is still debilitated and defective as it making women like Susan and many others suffer more than before.
To end this violence against women men can play an active role in developing women's shelter and crisis centers for women. The laws are needed to be reformed. Even the men who do not use violence have turned blind eye to the range of issues and violence against women.
这些问题危及她的案子并使她变得脆弱。 例如，苏珊曾向当局透露，她在遭到殴打时与警官分享了她的号码，她反复拨打该号码，但警官从不费心回答。 她还分享说，她花了几个月的时间与她的前缓刑官进行核实。
当她得知她的丈夫已成功向法院申请解除她对她提出的限制令时，已经太晚了。 因此，Nneka MacGregor 指出，关于 IPV 的刑事司法系统仍然虚弱和有缺陷，因为它使像 Susan 和许多其他人这样的女性比以前遭受更多的痛苦。
为了结束这种针对女性的暴力行为，男性可以在为女性建立女性庇护所和危机中心方面发挥积极作用。 法律需要改革。 即使是不使用暴力的男性也对一系列问题和针对女性的暴力行为视而不见。
This attitude needs to be changed.
Moreover, men should not take a passive stance even though they never used violence themselves. Many men in North America are outspoken in supporting women who are taking part in movements against violence. Such men are highly appreciated by women in society.
Men's involvement in women’s organization has become necessary as they could play a crucial role in spreading the awareness among their male fellows about the women issues which emanate as a result of IPV. The impact of the women’s movement has a tremendous impact on Canada and made possible the creation of the White Ribbon (Kaufman; Nicholson, 2020).
此外，即使男性自己从未使用过暴力，也不应该采取被动的立场。 北美的许多男性直言不讳地支持参与反暴力运动的女性。 这样的男人在社会上受到女性的高度评价。
男性参与女性组织变得必要，因为他们可以在男性同事中传播对 IPV 导致的女性问题的认识方面发挥关键作用。 妇女运动的影响对加拿大产生了巨大影响，并使白丝带的创建成为可能（考夫曼；尼科尔森，2020 年）。
The Canada Health Act and the Charter has become important for the pro-choice movement within the country. It was aided, again by the will of Dr. Morgentaler as well as other doctors to challenge federal and provincial abortion regulations. In 1984 the clinics were cleared of illegal providing abortions by a jury subsequently,
the Ontario Government appealed this decision. When this happened, Morgentaler appealed this decision to the Supreme Court of Canada. Then, in January 1988, the Supreme Court of Canada provided order in favor of Morgentaler, Smoling, Scott, and struck down law of abortion. The 1969 law neither assured access to abortion nor finished the debate of abortion.
Following the Supreme Court of Canada 1988 decision, various provinces passed regulations to limit the access to abortion. Reproductive justice is a term that includes affordable contraceptives, equal access to safe abortion, comprehensive sex education, and freedom from the sexual violence.
译文：问题 8 刑事犯罪代写
It is not sufficient that abortion is legal in a state
therefore, today, the reproductive justice remain incomplete. Subsequently, an Act of Genocide by Karen Stote explores the interference of state in the Indigenous women’s reproductive lives in Canada. Stote said that above 100 Indigenous women received insufficient anesthesia during the abortions at the Stanton Yellowknife hospital. In addition,
recent article of Erika Dyck and Maureen Lux on experiences of women in the North also confirmed the minor impact of 1969 abortion law and legal amendments in terms of the reproductive autonomy of Indigenous women. These investigations illuminated the need of intersectional framework to comprehend attitudes to abortion in Canada.
Reframing the problem by an Indigenous worldview would uncover the behaviors and directions in which Indigenous medicine, cultural practices and spirituality have shaped experiences of reproductive women, including abortion; in this area Burnett has made various significant contributions (ACKERMAN & STETTNER, 2019).
因此，今天，生殖正义仍然不完整。随后，凯伦·斯托特 (Karen Stote) 的《种族灭绝法》探讨了国家对加拿大土著妇女生殖生活的干预。 Stote 说，在 Stanton Yellowknife 医院堕胎期间，有 100 多名土著妇女没有接受足够的麻醉。此外，
Erika Dyck 和 Maureen Lux 最近关于北方妇女经历的文章也证实了 1969 年堕胎法和法律修正案对土著妇女生殖自主权的影响。这些调查阐明了需要交叉框架来理解加拿大对堕胎的态度。
通过土著世界观重新构建问题将揭示土著医学、文化习俗和灵性塑造生殖妇女体验（包括堕胎）的行为和方向；在这方面，伯内特做出了各种重大贡献（ACKERMAN & STETTNER，2019）。
Perry , B., & Scrivens, R. (2019). Thinking About Right-Wing Extremism in Canada. Palgrave Hate Studies.
ACKERMAN , K., & STETTNER, S. (2019). “The Public Is Not Ready for This”: 1969 and the Long Road to Abortion Access. The Canadian Historical Review, 239-256.
Boyd, S. (n.d.). Equality An uncomfortable fit in parenting law.
Comack, E., & Brickey, S. (2007). Constituting the Violence of Criminalized Women'. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice .
Kaufman, M. (n.d.). The Day the White Ribbon Campaign Changed the Game: A New Direction in Working to Engage Men and Boys. Contemporary Perspectives.
Kilty , J. (n.d.). Dangerous Liaisons, a Tale of Two Cases: Constructing Women Accused of HIV/AIDS Nondisclosure as Threats to the (lnter)national Body Politic.
LENON, S. (n.d.). Monogamy, Marriage, and the Making of Nation.
Nicholson, K. (2020). Barriers in Canadian Legal System complicating fight to end domestic violence. CBC News.
Patten , S., & Symington, A. (n.d.). The Blunt Instrument of the Law.