价格歧视分析代写 价格歧视的影响 宏观经济学代写

Impact of Price Discrimination


价格歧视的影响


价格歧视分析代写 It is my pressure to present to you the implications of third-degree price discrimination on production, efficiency, and social


It is my pressure to present to you the implications of third-degree price discrimination on production, efficiency, and social welfare based on theoretical models and real-world examples. The findings for this research will help in recommending policy measures. According to Miller (2014), the understanding of price discriminatin help expound on the legal and ethical issues surrounding it. The study of price discrimination assist in understanding consumer negotiation position and bargainng power in the market (Grennan, 2013).

Price discrimination is a common economic phenomenon in real business world to exploit the consumer surplus, and the third-degree price discrimination means that the company set different price for the same product in different markets considering the consumer characteristic. Price discrimination according to some researchers can provide benefits to consumers including lower prices, rewards for less popular products, assist the firm in staying profitable and in business. However, price discrimination can have negative implications on the social welfare, production and efficiency in the market as detailed by the scholarly findings.

译文:

我的压力是根据理论模型和实际案例向您介绍三次价格歧视对生产,效率和社会福利的影响。这项研究的结果将有助于建议政策措施。根据Miller(2014)的研究,对价格歧视的理解有助于阐述围绕价格歧视的法律和道德问题。价格歧视的研究有助于理解消费者在市场中的谈判地位和讨价还价能力(Grennan,2013)。

价格歧视是现实商业中利用消费者剩余的一种常见经济现象,三度价格歧视意味着公司考虑到消费者的特征,在不同的市场中为同一产品设置不同的价格。一些研究人员认为,价格歧视可以为消费者带来好处,包括更低的价格,不受欢迎产品的奖励,帮助公司保持盈利和开展业务。然而,如学术发现所详述的那样,价格歧视可能会对市场上的社会福利,生产和效率产生负面影响。价格歧视分析代写




价格歧视分析代写


Foremost, I must discuss the project plan to give a general overview of this research paper. 价格歧视分析代写


The main objective of this dissertation is to study third-degree price discrimination and its impact on production, efficiency, social welfare based on analysis of theoretical model and its application in real world, and lastly provide some policy suggestions. This research will add to the knowledge about the impact of price discrimination to the welfare of society and the influence of market demand and overall efficiency. The paper discusses how price discrimination impacts consumer surplus, social welfare and distribution. In support of the model, the paper used the US Airline case study on flight ticket pricing and shopping coupons as a marketing strategy and a form of social welfare. The model and cases helped in determining policy needs in price discrimination.

The literature review covers the various findings from scholars on how price discrimination has impacted social welfare, market efficiency and productivity of firms. There are two extreme perspectives on price discrimination. On one end is the positive relationship be Robinson (1969) and Pigou (1920) that argues price discrimination is based on strong and weak market. They agreed that price discrimination tends to be detrimental to social welfare in a linear demand curve as opposed to non-linear ones.

译文:

首先,我必须讨论项目计划以对本研究论文进行总体概述。


本文的主要目的是在理论模型分析及其在现实世界中的应用的基础上,研究三度价格歧视及其对生产,效率,社会福利的影响,最后提出一些政策建议。这项研究将增加关于价格歧视对社会福利的影响以及市场需求和整体效率的影响的知识。本文讨论了价格歧视如何影响消费者剩余,社会福利和分配。为了支持该模型,本文使用了美国航空公司关于机票价格和购物券的案例研究,将其作为一种营销策略和一种社会福利形式。该模型和案例有助于确定价格歧视方面的政策需求。

文献综述涵盖了学者关于价格歧视如何影响社会福利,市场效率和企业生产率的各种发现。关于价格歧视有两种极端的观点。一方面是积极的关系,罗宾逊(Robinson,1969)和皮古(Pigou,1920)认为,价格歧视是建立在强弱市场基础上的。他们一致认为,与非线性需求曲线相比,线性需求曲线中的价格歧视往往会损害社会福利。




Furthermore, Schmalensee (1981) found that price discrimination can cause distribution inefficiency particularly in monopolistic market.


Other scholars (Holmes, 1989; Borenstein, 1985; Borenstein and Rose, 1994) pointed that third-degree price discrimination may hamper fair competition in the market where few firms tend to set unsustainable prices that are can be unprofitable to other firms and hence locking them out of the market. Overall, literature has revealed that price discrimination has both benefits and detriments to social welfare, production and market efficiency.

Therefore, the findings in this research have implications for businesses. They learn how to be profitable and avoid bankruptcy by charging different prices to turn a loss into a small profit. This helps firms to keep going rather than closing down. Most importantly, is the understanding of the social impact where some groups benefit from lower prices. Firms have incentive to cut prices for some groups that are sensitive to prices; that is, they have elastic demand. For instance, students have lower-income and have more elastic demand. The group is poorer than average consumer. At the same time, it informs on the detriments that price discrimination, if not controlled can bring to the economy especially where people's welfare is concerned.

译文:

此外,Schmalensee(1981)发现价格歧视会导致分配效率低下,特别是在垄断市场中。


其他学者(Holmes,1989; Borenstein,1985; Borenstein和Rose,1994)指出,三度价格歧视可能会阻碍市场上的公平竞争,因为市场上很少有公司倾向于设定不可持续的价格,而这些价格可能对其他公司无利可图,因此被锁定。他们退出市场。总体而言,文献表明,价格歧视对社会福利,生产和市场效率既有好处,也有不利影响。

因此,这项研究的发现对企业具有重要意义。他们学习如何获利,并通过收取不同的价格将亏损变成微薄的利润来避免破产。这有助于公司继续前进而不是倒闭。最重要的是,了解某些群体从较低的价格中受益的社会影响。企业对某些对价格敏感的团体有降低价格的动机。也就是说,他们有弹性的需求。例如,学生的收入较低,需求更有弹性。该群体比普通消费者贫穷。同时,它告知人们不利的情况是,如果不加以控制,价格歧视会给经济带来特别是在涉及人民福利的地方。价格歧视分析代写




Additionally, the firms learn the mechanisms to avoid congestion through production. 价格歧视分析代写


It is most effective in the airline business to prevent overcrowding during rush hours. Also, when low-income consumers are charged less through coupons for the same product in the market, it improves their welfare. In the case of airline firms, price discrimination helps the company remain or be more profitable.

However, it is generally accepted the downsides of third-degree price discrimination. When some groups are charged less there are others who pay extra to compensate for the lost profit margin and hence paying more. Notably, in the air travel, those who book ticket during pick times end up paying more than those booking during low times. The higher prices are likely to be allocative ineffective because P>MC.

Secondly, there is decline in consumer surplus in that price discrimination increases the transfer of money from consumers to firms and hence contributing to increased inequality. Thirdly, price discrimination has potential of creating unfairness in the market. It does not necessarily benefit the poorest through low prices. For instance, the adults paying for low price could be unemployed, and elderly but very well off. Finally, price discrimination can be misused through predatory pricing. As a result, some firms may lock others from the market to enjoy the monopoly. The increase in monopoly power reduces the welfare of the public due to higher prices in long term.

译文:

另外,企业学习避免生产过程中拥堵的机制。


在航空业中,防止高峰时段过度拥挤是最有效的。另外,当低收入消费者通过优惠券对市场上相同产品的收费降低时,会改善他们的福利。就航空公司而言,价格歧视可以帮助公司保持竞争力或提高盈利能力。

但是,人们普遍接受三度价格歧视的弊端。当某些组的费用降低时,会有其他组支付更多费用以弥补利润损失,从而付出更多。值得注意的是,在航空旅行中,那些在接送时间预订机票的人最终所支付的费用要比在低谷期间预订的人多。由于P> MC,较高的价格可能对分配无效。

其次,消费者剩余减少了,因为价格歧视增加了从消费者到公司的资金转移,从而加剧了不平等现象。第三,价格歧视有可能造成市场不公平。它不一定会通过低价使最贫穷的人受益。例如,支付低价的成年人可能会失业,而老年人却很富裕。最后,价格歧视可被掠夺性定价滥用。结果,一些公司可能将其他公司锁定在市场之外,以享受垄断。由于长期价格上涨,垄断力量的增加降低了公众的福利。价格歧视分析代写




In summation, I would like to conclude the policy suggestions based on the findings of the research.


As such, price discrimination though has the negative side, will encourage the producers to expand sales and increase profits, then it could lead to increased government taxes. Therefore, market regulation policies should not hamper the mechanisms for price discrimination. However, due to its posing harm to the social welfare of the public, the government should device appropriate restrictions to control monopoly and few firms controlling the market.

译文:

总而言之,我想根据研究结果得出政策建议。


因此,价格歧视虽然有不利的一面,但它会鼓励生产者扩大销售并增加利润,这可能导致政府税收增加。 因此,市场监管政策不应妨碍价格歧视机制。 但是,由于它危害公众的社会福利,政府应采取适当的限制措施来控制垄断,并且很少有公司控制市场。




References 价格歧视分析代写


Borenstein, S. (1985). Price Discrimination in Free-Entry Markets. RAND Journal of Economics, 16, pp. 380-97.

Borenstein, S. and Rose, N. (1994). Competition and Price Dispersion in the U.S. Airline Industry. Journal of Political Economy,102, pp. 653-683.

Grennan, M. (2013). Price discrimination and bargaining: Empirical evidence from medical devices. American Economic Review, 103(1), 145-77.

Holmes, T. J. (1989). The Effects of Third-Degree Price Discrimination in Oligopoly. American Economic Review, 79, pp. 244-250.

Miller, A. A. (2014). What Do We Worry about When We Worry about Price Discrimination-The Law and Ethics of Using Personal Information for Pricing. J. Tech. L. & Pol'y, 19, 41.

Pigou, A. C. (1920). The Economics of Welfare. Macmillan and Co., London.

Robinson, J. (1969). The Economics of Imperfect Competition. 2 and ed. Springer.

Schmalensee, R. (1981). Output and Welfare Implications of Monopolistic Third-Degree Price Discrimination. The American Economic Review, 71(1), pp. 242-247.

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